Plato and Cosmic Justice

PLATO

AND

COSMIC JUSTICE

Placing Political Science on a Biological Base

by

Kinsley Titchener, M. Ed. and Frank W. Andres, M.A.

© Copyright, Kinsley Titchener, M. Ed, Frank W. Andres, M.A., 2022.

All Rights Reserved.

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Introduction

How does one place political science on a biological base? Why would one ever attempt to do this? The world has so many daunting problems. We must all attempt to help solve these problems – if we can. Of course there is global warming. However, there is also the problem of energy – There are only thirty years of oil left – We need energy – large amounts of energy – that is consistent with environmental needs, is cheap, and is in large quantities. So we are undertaking research in many areas – we are attempting to progress in many ways at once. We have written minibooks in which we have placed philosophy, psychology, and economics on a biological base. In this way we are trying to work on our Science of Everything. Please refer to our notes at the end of this minibook which list the books we have written – in which one can see how all of our ideas have evolved. – and are still evolving. We have formed a Creative Cluster of thirty people. We are building the future together!

Yes, we are attempting to place the social sciences on a biological base – and we have been fortunate to have made great progress. If the social sciences are placed on a biological base, then they can speak with, work with the physical and biological sciences in attempting to make breakthroughs where instruments are unable to function. Science in general has been slowing with regards to making major breakthroughs because instruments cannot measure things that are moving too fast or are too small. Too small is a real challenge as we are beginning to understand that we are in a cosmos composed entirely of countless entities that are too small for our instruments to examine. And as we say, there seems to be nothing else but smallness out there! The things we are able to see – just seem to be blowing up! The interesting things – are small! Or are in Darkness! Otherwise everything out there – seems so monotonous – so meaningless! So we have been chained in a Cave, as Plato would say, stuck developing a science based upon what we can see – what we can measure. The next frontier begins right now, right here, with these minibooks.

In past work we have come to surprising conclusions.

#We are 99.99 percent certain that every atom possesses consciousness.

#There is a hydrogen ion in your brain ‘looking out’. It is an I – it tells your brain what to do.

#Clouds, crowds of hydrogen ions created life – all out of sugar!

So atomic nuclei are the key to everything – everything in the cosmos is composed of them – seventy percent of all atoms in the cosmos are hydrogen ions – twenty-nine percent are helium ions – the rest which comprise less than one percent of all atoms – are the rest of the periodic table! The earth – is an anomaly! And the fact is – we know very little about the Is – the nuclei of these atoms that now seem to be the proud bearers of – consciousness! We know nothing about the hidden world within the atomic nucleus – except for a menagerie of particles that have been found as a result of smashing atomic nuclei to pieces with cyclotrons.

Well, we can find out more. We can look out at the world by means of our own Is, which are atomic nuclei – and see what we can discover. We have a front row seat! We can examine an atomic nucleus from the inside out – all by ourselves! We don’t need those pathetic microscopes! One thing we are looking for is an infinite supply of energy from Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Miracles can happen if we can get hydrogen ions to do our bidding – what if we put one of these babies in a computer chip! The electrons that surround an atomic nucleus obtain their energy from somewhere – eternally!Thus the nucleus of the atom obtains its energy from the same source – perhaps from Dark Energy. The hydrogen ion that is our I – does not obtain its energy from food we eat – it obtains its energy from that same Dark source. If we can somehow put one of these hydrogen ions to work – in a chip – it would bring with it – its own infinite source of energy! We need to know more. We need to do more! The survival of our species is at stake!

So let us look at those hydrogen ions of ours – Socrates and Plato were looking at theirs – though they did not know it.

This book is about political science and Justice – but before we can consider these things properly – we are at a stage – where we must discover a lot of other things first. Come along with us now. Socrates amd Plato took a few steps in this direction. Because of them – now, 2,000 years later – we are going places – where no man or woman –has gone before!

‘Verities’ are Attributes are Biology!

It was Plato who initiated the discipline of philosophy when he took the cosmic verities of Socrates: Truth, Beauty, and Goodness – and extended them in every direction of thought. Socrates was first to point out that he had no idea what these cosmic ideas really were. Socrates thought they were abstract truths – he believed that they were a priori knowledge that somehow came from our souls.

As we say, Socrates and Plato believed that the soul possessed knowledge of cosmic verities – which seems to have been things like Truth, Beauty, and Goodness. Well, we have done a lot of work placing the social sciences on a biological base and we have found that every human brain possesses an I – a hydrogen ion in charge – and each of these brings with it attributes – these attributes are: Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice – these are faculties that allow the I to direct the activities of a brain and allow an organism to survive in a dangerous world.

So, as it turns out – the ‘verities’ that Socrates spoke of – are not abstract truths at all – and they are not necessarily related to Goodness. Certainly Will and Love are not. Will is allied with power – and power can have good or bad impacts upon the world around it. Cosmic Will is mostly big things blowing up! Love in the cosmos is mostly connection. Electrons adhere closely to a nucleus. Planets stay close to a star. Hydrogen and helium ions are packed closely together in a star. Stars in a galaxy move in harmony with each other. Love in the plant/animal sphere is closely allied with sex – and perpetuation of a species – phenomena not normally considered to be ‘abstract’.

Truth and Beauty may have admirable aspects, but Truth is composed of knowledge which may be used for good or bad. Beauty can be ‘form’ which is part of an artist’s or mathematician’s quest for the best. However, Beauty is also music, the shape of organic bodies, which is allied to sex, and rainbows. Beauty is so many things – there seems to be no constancy here – no essence for the concept.

Justice has to do with excellence in disposition of the relationship among people – but it also has to do with the other ‘verities’ themselves – these cosmic ideas seem to overlap and blur distinction – justice clears the focus, delineates the interaction among them. Also the ‘verities’ operate in two spheres – cosmic and plant/animal – justice separates these differences and allows for compromises to be made – enabling organisms to avoid conflicts which arise when the two spheres meet. .

The reason that Socrates could not define ‘virtue’ – or tell you anything important about these ‘verities’ – is that – as we are saying – properly speaking – what we have found – are not ‘verities’ at all – they are not abstract ideas. In previous minibooks, we have placed philosophy on a biological base. Extending the arguments which can be found in these books – we find that these five things are attributes of a physical thing – a physical thing which becomes biological when it is placed into human brain. As we have said, every organism possesses an I – which is a hydrogen ion – and it is this ion that possesses Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice.

We are now able to examine these attributes – as we say, we have one of these hydrogen ions in our brain – we are looking out – through it. What do we see! We can see things that microscopes cannot. What we find out is: atomic nuclei possess attributes, not ‘verities’ – these attributes are faculties – they can do stuff! As such they possess characteristics of behavior – so we can describe this behavior.

Well, it would be nice if we could examine the mechanisms, the biology of this behavior – where they come from – in detail. However, the physics of their creation lies deep within an atomic nucleus. How small is this nucleus? If the nucleus is a ping pong ball – if it possesses an electron moving around it – this electron is three blocks away! We have been presented with great difficulties already obtaining the information we have received – by all sorts of indirect and devious means. We do know that within nuclei there are quarks which could undertake different aspects of conscious processing of data from the world around the atom. These quarks, we know, are composed of a menagerie of particles – knowledge that has been reaped from years of nuclear collisions within cyclotrons. How these particles might work together to perceive, think, and act with its own memory – well, we have no idea about any of this. And then there is probably some sort of larger memory bank – a Dark sort of Memory in the Dark Energy and Dark Matter parts of the Cosmos? That is, general knowledge must be available to cosmic entities easily somehow – there do not seem to be schools of learning anywhere about. Somehow hydrogen ions obtained enough information to create life!

An interesting thought has come to us: we know that organisms are astonishing in one respect – well, they are a miracle, completely – still one thing has always awed us: the smallest organism, which we suppose is a bacteria of some sort possesses all the major components of life – that are possessed by the largest of species. We have studied human cells – and we found to our amazement that each cell has the counterpart of a human brain’s perception, thought (presumably taking place in a centrosome wherein a hydrogen ion presumably resides), of course, such centrosome probably possesses a small memory of its own, however this small memory is obviously bolstered by the presence of an even greater memory (DNA) in the nucleus of the cell, and then the centrosome takes action. The way the dynamics seems to progress is thusly: new particles that are admitted through the cell wall, are conducted by means of filaments to the centrosome – where each particle is identified, a decision is made as to where this particle should go – either to a place in the DNA where the particle is utilized to create molecules beneficial to the operation of the cell, or it is sent to another organelle for processing, or it is eliminated as waste. It was our suggestion in our minibook that investigated this cellular activity that cancer and other diseases might be headed off abruptly at their inception if a centrosome could identify potential problems and eliminate them right then and there – or if this were not possible for some reason – death of the cell could be initiated – for the good of the entire organism. In this way, we have reaffirmed the fact that basic patterns are present from the smallest of organism – human cells presumably are descendants of bacteria – to the largest – Thus, now it may be possible – to look in the other direction!

It is now our hypothesis that the basic pattern found in organisms – with a head, respiration, digestion, elimination and so on might find its basic, cosmic template within the nucleus of every atom. This hypothesis might help guide the investigation of these sub-microscopic entities.

However, at this point, fortunately much detail at this deeper level of operation of the atomic nucleus is not necessary to accomplish the tasks at hand – although we must make a note that such knowledge will be required in the future – we need to keep working on increasing the strength of our instruments and keeping our eyes open to capture more clues as to sub-nuclear activity.

At this moment, what we do know is: that any organism is able to express its Will; able to express its ability to Love, that is, connect with entities around it; able to seek Truth, that is, create ideas, which are tools that may be used to implement Will and impact the world around the nucleus, although it is more likely that the organism’s I possesses tools embedded in its memory, or tools exist in a Dark Memory somewhere to assist in its objective of impacting the external world; able to discern Beauty, and again there may be memory that assists the I‘s ability to detect desirable entities around it that can be used to obtain certain objectives; and able to ascertain that Justice exists in its interactions with other organisms. Let us see what we can do with this information.

Plato and Justice

As we say, it is our hypothesis that every atom in the cosmos possesses the cosmic attributes of Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice. The nucleus of one of these atoms is in each of our brains. As we say, it is from our own I – that we are able to receive these ‘verities’!

A ‘verity’ that is central to political science and to government is Justice. Cosmic Justice concerns how individual particles in the cosmos are to interact together. Justice as a concept transcends the individual and considers interactions among individuals of the same species – and with other species. As we have seen, cosmic Justice is a physical thing, an idea, a tool, that exists in every atomic nucleus and as we say, is therefore located in the hydrogen ion that is in charge of each of our brains.– this hydrogen ion in this way becomes biological, and Justice becomes a biological concept – and political science is able to be grounded upon this.

As one can understand, one problem is that life does not occur within the cosmic sphere of existence. What we are saying is this: sometimes the attributes of Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice are capitalized – sometimes- they are not. Ions in space have certain concerns – animals have other concerns – they must eat each other! Ions built life – but life is not cosmic! I mean these little guys did their best – and it was a miracle! But life – is mostly sugar! Life is of a plant/animal sphere and survival is paramount – so when humans consider justice – there are always compromises – we must be fair – when we are eating each other up!

It turns out that Plato’s ideas increase the probability of our being right about atoms and consciousness even more. His ideas become biology! Well, we knew that he was the one that publicized and extended in every direction the cosmic ‘verities’, abstract truths that exist at the basis of life – that we have found to be: Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice. It is just that when he is describing things like this, everything he says is very consistent with our biological understanding of things.

Plato was an ancient Greek, a citizen of the city-state of Athens during its classical age. How much of Plato’s achievement in almost singlehandedly creating philosophy, as we shall see, is explained by his having been a Greek? Well, Greeks seem to have been preoccupied with the question of what it is that makes life worth living. They knew that one must exert oneself in order to achieve a life that matters. It is only by making one extraordinary that one can keep from disappearing without a trace. One must live such that one will be spoken about – by as many speakers as possible and for as long as possible. It is, in the end, the only kind of immortality for which Greeks could hope for. We think now – that we can do better! If our I is indeed a hydrogen ion – then there is hope for eternal existence for our I! Socrates and Plato believed that it is our exertions in reason – that in the end give our existence importance – make us, to the extent that we can be, god-like – discerning cosmic truths – in this way setting the universe itself to the task of making us humans better! Cosmic ‘verities’ possess power. Subjects that we keep resolutely apart tend to meld together when we bring cosmic truths to bear on them: ethics, political theory, aesthetics, cosmology, metaphysics, epistemology, and psychology. Powers residing in our Is – literally move – the world!

Science progresses – philosophy, it would seem, doesn’t. Philosophy in the past has been abstract and non-empirical. So what did Plato and Socrates do again that contributed to this? Socrates discovered cosmic ‘verities’, abstract cosmic truths – that can give a person a life worth living. Plato moved beyond mere self betterment – he took these abstract ‘verities’ and founded an entire discipline of thought. He did this by taking these ‘verities’ and extending them into every facet of plant/animal life. Socrates had never written anything – he had wandered barefoot throughout the Athenian agora persistently asking questions – the agora was the center of the city, the site of its commercial, political, and cultural life – in this way he was a man who hung around the agora of Athens and engaged anyone he could – from statesmen to sophists to poets to artisans to schoolboys to slaves – in philosophical discussion. Plato attempted to accelerate and spread the therapeutic movement of such thinking by means of writing and teaching. Because of his efforts, parts of the original philosophy of these two men – have moved into disciplines of their own with empirical underpinnings – their metaphysics has moved into cosmology and ethics – their philosophy-of- mind has moved into neuroscience, epistemology, and now into computer technology. The frozen-hard bits of it that are still left – left in cold storage, it would seem – seemingly left behind because of their stubbornly abstract non-empirical aspects – these frozen-hard bits are what we call ‘philosophy’, today.

As we say, the reason things like these parts of philosophy and many other areas of science have been stymied – is that our instruments are unable to examine things that are moving too fast – or are too small. Because of this, we need a new science, a new scientific method, and a new way of conducting experiments – please see our book: Man and the Cosmos – The Science of Everything. As we say, the cosmos is built up out of entities that are invisible to us – invisible to our instruments. And instruments are essential to our ability to examine and measure things – and our science at the present time – will accept no evidence that is not the result of examination and measurement. So we are rectifying that lack – we are moving rapidly forward while philosophy is stagnant – no one writes dialogues anymore – philosophers seem to spend their time talking to themselves mainly – mumbling almost incoherently in a corner. So we are attacking philosophy with our new science and our new scientific method! Placing philosophy on a biological base like this – gives us a way to understand cosmic Justice.

The Myth of the Cave

In Plato’s Republic – Socrates describes a group of chained prisoners incarcerated in a cave, on the back wall of which shadows are being projected by a fire burning behind them. One prisoner frees himself and manages to get out into the light – where he sees real things – not shadows. Plato thought this ‘earth’ world of ours is like the cave – it is a world of appearance. In the light a person is able to see a realm of intellectual, spiritual, eternal objects, which are objects of real knowledge – knowledge that can be directly attained, in some sense, by what must be an immortal, divine soul. This myth presents a journey to the light as a largely solitary one – but Socrates and Plato conceived of philosophy as necessarily gregarious rather than solitary – all is a project of reason – all proceeding in dialogue – progress is made by appealing to, evaluating, and being persuaded by reasons – all of this, and all of us – are required – to find our way out of the illusion-haunted cave.

There is a problem with talk, talk, talk – just as there is with democracy in general. Each person possesses a different viewpoint – but there can be – only one Truth. Philosophy is supposed to render violence to our sense of ourselves and our world, our sense of ourselves in that world. Socrates’ and Plato’ ideas can easily rend violence to ourselves and our plans as we are plant/animal – and they are trying to make us adhere to cosmic ideals. As we say, there are two spheres – our plant/animal sphere is not a cosmic sphere – but it can be influenced by the cosmos – yet it is we ourselves who must impart much of that influence. As we say, we are fortunate for one thing – as we might have sung in the musical, Hair: ‘We have our I’ – which is a hydrogen ion – and which possesses attributes given to it by the cosmos. Thus, we are viewing the plant/animal world and attempting to operate successfully in it – by means – through – a piece of the cosmos and thereby survive and succeed – in a world wherein life is made up of sugar! – with a little this and that added.

Okay, we are taking political science and working with it. We have made it a biological science! What can we do with it?

Cosmic ‘Verities’

Socrates’ most famous words are: ‘an unexamined life is not worth living’ – which Socrates maintained meant: no one can live virtuously without knowledge of what virtue is. And secondly, once one possesses this knowledge – one must actively and successfully strive to live a virtuous life. In this way the truth a person possesses – must include wisdom beyond mere intelligence – beyond mere love for oneself. Combining his ideas with what we know, we arrive at the following: the cosmic ‘verities are actually five attributes that are found in every atom nucleus. These five attributes are:

:

#Will empowers one – enables him or her to impact the world around him or her.

#Love is connection with entities – with entities that are like an individual – with other things that are not. One can love beauty but not in a cosmic sphere – love and beauty are separate cosmic attributes.

#Truth is knowledge – it is uncertain which types of knowledge are cosmic – there is human knowledge that is insufficient for virtue – is there a cosmic library in the Darkness up there somewhere – hidden in Dark Energy or Matter? Are we on earth to help build cosmic knowledge? If this is true – how is this to be done and and where does cosmic knowledge ultimately reside?

#Beauty is form – a cosmic idea of perfection – which is somehow integrated with the laws of the universe, with abilities of the left side of the human brain, and with mathematics and the like – as we shall see, this description leaves out an entire hemisphere of the human brain.

#Justice – The attributes of the I – reach out and touch somebody – and in so doing cross-purposes can arise. For example, Love is an almost indiscriminate connection association among entities – among everything! Justice is more careful – connections can become contaminated toxic to parties involved – rules must exist to govern cosmic interaction of entities – Justice must look at all the attributes – and sort out and solve conflicts that may arise among individuals – and conflicts that arise from the opposition between the cosmic and plant/animal aspects of our lives.

The cosmos and Goodness: It is right here that Socrates and Plato become a bit confusing. They are always looking for Goodness. Yet Goodness is not an attribute found in an I. It seems that cosmic particles always take optimum paths. The confusion arises we think because Socrates and Plato, as we have said, were both left hemispheric dominant in their brain. As we have said, Aristotle seems to have been right hemispheric dominant in his brain. We do not have space in this minibook to talk about the right side of the brain – that has been expounded out and into – in many of our other places. In Plato’s Republic the man stumbling out of the darkness of the cave into the blazing light sees the sun as being the ultimate Good – later Plato realizes that Beauty and mathematics probably are higher concepts than a mere ‘goodness’. From our perspective we know that the ‘verities’ that Plato talked about – are not – out there – in the sunlight. They are within us – carried by the I, the hydrogen ion within our brain. And although there are attributes carried by the I that are truly magnificent in terms of form and mathematical Beauty – there is so much more that is carried by that tiny magnificent entity – in addition – that embody their own admirable qualities!

The thing is – Socrates and Plato were always looking for something called Goodness – as we say, we think that is because they were left hemispheric dominant – as a consequence, they were concentrating upon two attributes carried by the I: namely, Truth and Beauty. They gave short shrift to the attributes of Will and Love. In the cosmos there are always two aspects to things: first, things are exploding – always – all over the place – Is anything else really happening? Just asking. And then second, once something explodes somehow forces pull in the other direction in conformance with form, law, and mathematics. Just saying: isn’t this like the two sides of the brain – this hemispheric, neurological division might be traced in its origin to the attributes carried by the I – Will and Love power the cosmos – Truth and Beauty contain, restrain, make it all wondrous.

Still, Socrates was unyielding – he believed that one must have a knowledge of the ‘verities’ and be able to observe them in the proper manner in order to be able to live a life worth living. In this way, Socrates ranting and raving, conflicted with the Athenean idea of aretē which looked tothe most glorious possibilities for human achievement – to the most daunting reaches of human excellence of a sort to provoke other men’s astonishment to put one’s name on many lips for centuries to come – all of which are kind of right hemispheric dominant things – in this way, the Greeks seem to have been a society with both sides of the brain operating. I know, all of this hemispheric dominant stuff seems a bit trendy and unscientific – but both the authors are at very high levels of cerebral ability according to actual tests – each on a different side of the brain – so we have knowledge whereof this we speak. As we have said, for Greeks – it was more the Will and Love aspects of the I that seemed to make a life worth living. For Socrates and Plato, it was the Truth, Beauty, and Goodness aspects that were important. When one really gets down to it – Socrates’ and Plato’s conception of these ‘verities’: Truth, Beauty, and Goodness – seem confused. Truth is a tool and is the product of both sides of the brain working together – not just the mathematical side working alone – and Beauty – well, music, which is a right hemispheric sort of thing can be Beautiful in its own way – surely as Beautiful as a mathematical equation. In this way, the ideas of Socrates and Plato conflicted with the social morality of the Athenean people.

The fact is – the people around Plato believed that no people on earth – could be living lives that mattered more than the citizens who lived in the shadow of the Acropolis – and any accomplishments they may have made were, they thought, the result of the application of a amazing amount of Will and power – and not the result of sitting in a corner, perceiving oneself as being clean and pretty. To Atheneans, being sung about, having one’s life spoken about, one’s story vivid in others’ heads, is what gives one’s life an added substance. It was like acquiring additional lives to add to your meager one. It is this social aspect of aretē that both Socrates and Plato subtracted from the notion. Plato’s Socrates saw no contradiction in saying that someone has aretē even though he goes unrecognized and unappreciated. The important thing was to be able to consider oneself as being mathematically, ethically perfect – in one’s own mind! To heck with history! When one does not live up to the morality required of a mathematical existence – well, he or she has destroyed his or her aretē. By destroying his or her aretē, he or she – destroys him- or herself. Socrates was executed because such talk was a great threat to Athenian values. One could imagine what the results might be if the United States confronted the power of China – with the assurance – and only the assurance – that we are great – because we are ethically pure!

Plato attempted to apply norms of human behavior in every direction. He attempted to apply his cosmic verities not only to human behavior as Socrates had done, but extended these basic power truths outward – to language, to politics, to art, to mathematics, to religion, to love and friendship, to the mind, to personal identity, to the meaning of life and the meaning of death, to the nature of explanation, of rationality, and of knowledge itself. In this way, as we have said – singlehandedly Plato created all – of philosophy!

Plato’s ‘Cosmos’ in his Mind

From the very beginning there was trouble! Right here in River City! Sorry. From the first dialogue, the Apology, one could see that there was a problem. Small at first, it began to fester, until it exploded out into full contagion with, into what we shall call – Plato’s ‘Cosmos of the Mind’.

There it was, right at the beginning – There were Socrates’ repeated calls for the essence of an idea – for the ideas of ‘holiness’, ‘courage’, – then ‘verity’ itself. Aristotle later could see what the fuss was about – Socrates was just obviously calling for a ‘definition’ of these ideas. The problem is, was – that Plato, in recounting Socrates actions, wasn’t.

Therein was the dilemma! One sees that what Plato was calling for – was the essence of a thing. So what he was calling for was an analytical disposition, disquisition? Well, he was just saying come on, use your brain and tell me what courage is! However, Aristotle knew better – somehow he knew more. A definition requires work from two sides of the brain – and from two different brains! The right side of the brain in a person who is dominant in that side – collects ideas, creates syntheses by means of analogy, that is by means of similarity. Then the left side in another person who is dominant in that side takes that first work and separates – uses analytical processes, deduction to pick apart differences among things. And that’s right – a definition does both of these things – it requires abilities from both sides of the brain – first, a classification, a generalization is made – we are talking about frogs – what do all frogs have in common? Once we have a general genus of frogs – this genus may be divided up, separated into individual species of frogs. There it is: both sides of the brain – appear blatantly in every definition!

But ‘definitions’ have no place in Plato’s conception of things. Form was his name – and Form was his game. As we now know so many years later – the ability to bring the power of Form into mental exertion is possessed by the left hemisphere of the brain. Plato saw no need for the separate hemispheres. How did Aristotle ever become a member of the Academy? Obviously he possessed the powers of the right hemisphere.

Next we move from Plato’s first period – which was influenced greatly by the ideas of Socrates – into what is called Plato’s ‘middle period’. Plato’s dialogue, the Phaedo, is often treated as though its object were to provide a demonstration of the immortality of the soul. It does not really try to do this. The object is to show that immortality is probably True by showing that the cosmos is rational – that the cosmos is Beautiful – that it is filled with Forms. That we mere humans are able to discern such a divine realm must mean that some part of us is divine also.

When we talk of a world of Platonic entities, this suggests a picture of some sort of separate place, sometimes lampooned as ‘Plato’s heaven.’-somewhere located in a perfection of eternity, beyond the reach of the corrosive tides of time. In this magnificent realm, such things as numbers and non-numerical abstract universals shine forth. They are to be glimpsed not by a crude organ of the body but by the far more refined and inequitably distributed faculties of mind. Beautiful concepts reside in a world of abstract things, parallel to our sensed world of concrete things. There is a one-to-one relationship between objects of earth and their respective Forms in Plato’s conception of a Form-filled cosmos. It is a kind of space beyond space wherein, somehow, mathematical structures are immanent in nature. Plato’s assertion of the reality of mathematical structures found its practical realization in the study of plane and solid geometry, of astronomy, harmonics, and optics. He tried to extend all of this to medicine not so successfully. The secret of all this seems to be that there are laws and mathematical relationships embedded in the cosmos, and somehow well, the left side of the brain is part of the cosmos and seems to have these laws and relationships embedded in it also. The right side of the brain has other aspects found in the cosmos – like power, connection – well, explosions of many types. The right side of the brain is the source of all new ideas, and thus is immediately incriminated as the most likely source for intellectual explosions of all kinds!

However, Plato’s cosmos is mathematical-like in nature and therefore for him this must be proof that it is of a god. And human beings are aware of the Beauty of the cosmos because each person possesses a soul which comes from that cosmos – is of that cosmos – and is able to convey divine ‘verities’ to us. What is being professed is the ‘divinity’ of the soul; its survival of death is a consequence of its inherent divinity.

So, to remember – Atheneans felt they were the greatest and just – by birth and thus their great deeds would automatically insure that they would be living a life worth living. Plato begged to differ. What Plato actually was attempting to show was: we achieve a life worth living by understanding: how the cosmos achieved an existence worth existing. Wow! This is an idea worth pursuing – because sometimes the cosmos seems to have no worth at all – no reason for being – as we have said, it seems to be just a lot of blowing up. However, if the cosmos is actually filled with Beauty and Forms, then what is impersonally sublime is in this way internalized into personal virtue. That is, our soul is our connection with the cosmos – and it gives us a chance – to be good!

The problem with all of this – and Plato seems to have begun to understand this – is that Plato’s ‘cosmos’ of the mind is exactly that – it exists only in a human brain. It is a marvel – it is a wonder! It is what allows us to express our humanness. For this is a cosmos – of ideas – which are tools. And tools are the key! We are apes – and we are the apes that create tools! And that cosmos in our brain is a wonderful collection of tools that began to build up, up , up – ultimately to reach Industrial Revolution! Yes, humans now are wonderful. However, as we say, the word ‘tool’ is the key – we are not using the word ‘Form’. Tools are what identify us – as being animal – as being biological.

A cosmos without – a cosmos within! Plato in fact was onto something here. The trick is that – every atom possesses consciousness. We do indeed have a soul – an I – a hydrogen ion – that is cosmic – we are in fact cosmic creatures and our Is – are eternal!

Cosmic Justice

So, as we have seen, there is a such a thing as cosmic Justice. It always resides nearby – in our I. However, it is from another sphere. It seldom applies unaltered to our lives. So the question is: when is reference to cosmic Justice required – and why isn’t it the final word in every case – or in any case?

Well, first there is the obvious matter of the individual versus other single individuals – and the individual versus society in general. An individual may be thinking that he or she is implementing, pursuing, as well as possible, the attributes of the I – employing Will, Love, Truth, and Beauty in the best way possible. And yet that person could well run head to head into another person attempting to employ these attributes in his or her own way. If everyone were pursuing the same Goodness, then there would be no problem. However, these are not ‘verities’ – each individual possesses objectives that he or she desires to obtain – and conflicts may occur. Thus cosmic Justice may need to be referred to.

Plato believed that Truth, Beauty, and goodness were all bound up with one another, providing the ontological structure of reality. They all sort of blend together – No! Physical attributes have distinct boundaries – there can be conflicts among individuals with regards these attributes – these conflicts must be resolved and can only be resolved by a fifth attribute – that of Justice. In this way, Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice explode out of cosmic consciousness – by way of the I – by way of a hydrogen ion. They are not the product of some sublime, abstract world accessed by the mind.

So how does such a thing like cosmic Justice work in our everyday lives to resolve individual conflict? If we were hydrogen ions moving about in space – cosmic Justice would be almost straight-forward – perhaps automatic. Hydrogen ions are are practically identical – although we believe that personality is preserved eternally. In this way, if two people fuse as one on earth – this couple may endure forever. However, in most cases in the cosmos – interaction among entities is rather straight-forward: if one I is a certain distance from another I in space, two hydrogen ions may become a molecule based on how close they are to each other versus other ions.

On earth things are not so simple. A person may strive to be as fair with other people or other organisms on earth in attempting to do what is right in terms of his or her individual life. Still there will times when conflicts occur with other individuals who feel they are operating if a fair way or in a way that is consistent with their plant/animal priorities. Thus there are many times when people feel that Justice is fully observed by an individual – however, there can be conflicts with this individual and other individuals when they both are utilizing, putting these faculties to work in their lives. Such conflicts call for resolution – call for justice as a compromise.

In the myth of the cave, Plato has his emancipated prisoner encounter the Sun and the Truth of the cosmos – and he has no inclination to return to that darkness which heretofore had enveloped him. But he had to return – for in that instant – cosmic Justice called out to him to adjust his earthly actions. Other people are one’s brothers and sisters. There exists inborn knowledge in our lives carried to us by our I – that life is not exclusively an individual thing – there are others that must be considered.

Will, Love, Truth, and Beauty – well, Plato thought that the ‘verities’ were all bound up with one another – providing the ontological structure of reality. They all sort of blend together. No! As we have said, the attributes carried by the I possess distinct boundaries – there can be conflicts among individuals with regards these attributes – these conflicts must be resolved and can only be resolved with input from a fifth attribute – that of cosmic Justice. What we are saying is: the four attributes that structure our reality have specific normative consequences – they are in the back of our mind constantly telling us that we ought to do this, we ought to do that – and all of this ‘ought’ business often leads to conflicts among individuals – which, as we say, calls forth a fifth cosmic attribute – that of Justice.

A second problem which calls for a need for cosmic Justice to be adjusted in a compromise is that each of these cosmic attributes can be implemented to a certain degree in the plant/animal world – but such earthly implementation must necessarily be compromised and partial. Thus, when one is attempting to implement cosmic Justice in a plant/animal world – one is guided by the cosmic principle – it can never be satisfactorily applied. For example, humans need to kill animals and other organisms for food or otherwise for survival. Well, this is earth, not heaven – kill away! But be nice? Be vegetarian? Only bread and water? Other animals are not concerned with this conflict – as they are led mainly by instinct and lack rational thought.

So in this second instance where cosmic Justice must be applied, there are the obvious differences between the cosmic sphere of atoms and nebulae – and a plant/animal world wherein organisms eat each other. The question in this instance must be asked: how much is cosmic Justice a part of an earthly existence? 98 percent of the elements and chemistry found here on earth – occur almost nowhere else. 70 percent of all atoms in the cosmos are hydrogen ions – and 29 percent are helium ions – these are two elements – the remaining 107 elements in the periodic table are found only in less than one percent of the cosmos – only in remote places such as earth. And life here was created by clouds, crowds of hydrogen ions – they built life out of sugar! One cannot expect cosmic Justice to have much to do with a bizarre world such as ours. Goodness in the plant/animal sphere – is always with respect to the individual organism and species and what contributes or detracts from its ability to survive – obviously goodness of earth has little to do with mathematics or virtue!

Socrates supposedly knew how – in both his opinion and Plato’s – to live a virtuous life, but he wasn’t able to render that knowledge as a set of propositions. What this means is – that Socrates knew what he had to do to remain virtuous – but he did not know how he knew. He was never taught such things – there did not seem to be any way for him to actually know such things. Such knowledge seemed to come to him as a sort of recollection – of knowledge he had received previously from – a previous life? All he could do was to attribute such knowledge to a sort of ‘Sign’ that came to him – which got him into all sorts of trouble religiously in that Athenean world. A Sign? Well, now we know where that knowledge came from – and the truth is astounding.

Based upon what Plato believed – it would seem that one should be in constant contact with one’s I – an I that no one has ever thought of before – because no one knew that the I was a physical entity that existed in one’s brain. There are the cosmic attributes that we need to be aware of – and we can only receive knowledge of such attributes by being in close contact with our I. In addition, our I is able to convey knowledge concerning the laws and powers of the cosmos which can be very helpful in our daily lives. All through his dialogues it is suggested that there is goodness to be gained from knowledge of the way the cosmos is. Truth is ethically active when knowledge from the cosmos is brought to bear upon this earthly life. Plato felt that cosmic Justice can be implemented on earth by means of temperance, courage, and reverence – it requires disciplining one’s rebellious nature, which is always intent on having things its own way. When we live a just life, it helps us live a life worth living. Plato felt that this was the only path to happiness. We on the other hand feel that creativity is the key to joy and happiness – if it is conducted so as to work for the betterment of man- and womankind.

What is the relationship between cosmic Justice and government? The answer to this lies with questions of morality versus other branches of philosophy – questions that constantly test us. As we have seen specific actions are right, others are wrong in certain situations. ‘Popular morality’ is confused in theory and unreliable in practice because it does not rest on any assured insight into absolute good. ‘Popular morality’ because it is not ‘touched’ by the cosmic – because it does not rest on such certain insight, is a not morality worthy of absolute and unconditional obedience to conscience, such as Socrates had shown. Since the task of the statesman is simply the task of ‘tending the soul’ extended to the ‘national’, the person who is able to discern the proper compromises between individuals and between the cosmic and plant/animal – is the only true statesman. True statesmanship means the promotion of national character as the one thing which matters, and is therefore simply the application, on the grand scale, of the principles of absolute morality. What falls short of this – is opportunism masquerading as statesmanship.

Again we need to remind ourselves as to what the cosmic attributes are. And again we must remind ourselves that these attributes are physical faculties possessed by every atom – including the hydrogen ion I – that is in one’s brain – ‘looking out’. The attributes come from the cosmos – however, they gain a plant/animal aspect as they are applied in a human world. How does one remain virtuous in a plant/animal sphere? When questions such as this arise – the cosmic attributes of our I – are there – speaking to us. The thing is, we are there also – we are the ones whose responsibility it is to take information from all sources including the cosmic – and do the just thing here on earth.

For example – let us consider several situations in which the four attributes posited within our I are expressing themselves – there is conflict – how is the fifth cosmic attribute of Justice used to find compromise in a not so perfect world?

Will –

#When we wonder whether we should instill in our children a discontent with the ordinary so that they will be inspired to be extraordinary

— Just remember that when Socrates walked about claiming that one must be virtuous at all times – he himself had a family, he himself ate plants and animals – he himself made compromises with cosmic Justice – every day.

Love –

#When we ponder the nature of romantic love and whether there is something redemptive or rather wasteful about the amount of attention and energy we’re prepared to sacrifice to it

Just remember that a main reason for your being here on earth may be to find that important, essential ‘other’ with whom you may work and build together with on earth – and then be together with forever.

Truth –

#When we argue over whether ethical truths are inextricably tied to religious truths

–Just remember that a cosmic theology exists – which Socrates and Plato were investigating without really knowing they were doing it.

#When we wonder whether all truths – even the scientific – are no more than cultural artifacts

–Just remember that plant/animal truth is built of ideas, which are tools – which we may be able to use to help build the future – together.

#When we wonder whether reason is sufficient – or even necessary – to guide us through life, or whether there are occasions when we should abandon reason and go with our hearts

–Just remember, there are two sides of the brain – which hemisphere are you dominant in? – how can you work with others uniting your abilities with theirs – to build the future?

#When we wonder how, if we do know the difference between right and wrong, we come to know it

–Just remember that cosmic Justice was, and is always, nearby to help in your thinking.

#When we wonder how we can teach the difference between right and wrong to our children, whether it is through storytelling or reason or threats or love

–Just remember that when children are born, they have only one thing in their brain that is already alert and cognitively active – an I – in which cosmic attributes are already present – to be addressed and encouraged.

#When we wonder why virtue so often seems to go unrewarded, with good people suffering while bad people prosper and get tenure

–Just remember that joy and happiness come only from creativity: physical creativity – having children; intellectual creativity – coming up with new ideas; and cosmic creativity – uniting with your cosmic Will to take your ideas and begin to move the world!

#When we wonder whether the scientific image of the human – as subject to the laws of nature as the computers on which we write – has rendered the grander humanist image of us quaintly obsolete

–Just remember there is nothing inherently wrong with Industrial Revolution – many lives have benefited greatly from the implementation of cosmic Will – nevertheless, cosmic Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice are always in one’s I – nearby.

#When we wonder whether we have at last grasped the truth or ought rather to hear further arguments from the other side

–Just remember that Truth is not something that is recollected as Socrates thought – it is not something that is obtained – it is something that must be constantly and arduously built – to the sky!

Beauty –

#When we wonder over the nature of great art and whether it is able to teach us truths we can’t otherwise know

–Just remember the greatest art welcomes input from both sides of the brain – Beethoven, Mozart – Lennon, McCartney – both sides of the brain in each couple here – great Will, Love, Truth, Beauty, and Justice – are all found in great art.

Justice –

#When we disagree over whether the 1 percent really contribute more to society than the 99 percent and whether, if they do, their contributions should be recognized in the form of increased privileges or increased obligations

–Just remember creativity by itself bestows great reward.

#When we argue over what the role of the state is, whether it is there to protect us or to perfect us

–Just remember truly great people are at the top – they give of themselves to enable us to be a great country and help lead the world.

#When we worry about the susceptibility of voters to demagoguery and the dangers of mixing entertainment values with politics

–Just remember that our country is ruled – by the rule of law – which is informed by cosmic Justice – The foundation of our nation is built imbued with the cosmic attributes of the I.

#When we wonder whether professional thinkers who come out of our universities and our think tanks should have a role to play in statesmanship, or whether their expertise is useless or worse in the practical political sphere

–Just remember that each of us has his or her mountain to climb – we are all required to help build the future – no one is allowed to stand idly nearby.

#When we ponder the moral shape of history, whether mankind is making moral progress or only finding more efficient ways of expressing savagery and ruthless self-regard

–Just remember that we must be confident that somehow, in some manner – people guided by cosmic Justice – are at the top of the national and world governments.

#When we realize that often verities such as Love and Justice involve connection among entities like ourselves – the cosmic part of us and the plant/animal parts

–Just remember to look at the monuments and buildings in our nation’s Capitol – one can see the influence of the cosmic attributes of the I – everywhere!

Conclusion

We think that if philosophy is relegated to play the role of the ‘gadfly’ as Socrates professed – then we think it has missed its calling. Philosophy is the science of looking at the brain from the inside out – and in this endeavor, it possesses a recent history of pursuing two objectives: 1) that of understanding how the brain creates ideas – all to which the works Descartes, Berkeley, Leibnitz, Hume, and Hegel, along with others, have contributed, probably unknowingly; and 2) that of understanding how the I – which is actually a hydrogen ion – operates when it is in charge of a human brain – Plato and Existentialists have contributed more to this effort than they ever could know. When we use philosophy in this manner – we become a sort of microscope to examine phenomena and entities which existing instruments cannot examine. When it comes to the I – it is our objective to learn how we can communicate with such entities, and utilize its powers in general with its access to infinite amounts of Dark Energy.

We are 99.99 percent certain that the I within us is eternal – therefore death is nothing to be feared. Plato’s lack of fear was based on an argument that may be given briefly as follows: a true philosopher may naturally look forward to death without dismay. For death is the separation of soul from body, and the philosopher’s whole life has been spent in trying to liberate the soul from dependence on her body. In life, the body is always interfering with the soul’s activity. Its appetites and passion interrupt our pursuit of wisdom and goodness; its infirmities are perpetually hindering our thinking. Even in our scientific work, we only attain exact and certain truth in proportion as we detach ourselves from reliance on sense-perception and learn to depend on pure thinking.

Death, according to this reckoning then, only completes a liberation which the philosopher has been ‘rehearsing’ all through life.

We believe that there is much truth in all this – but marred by a distortion lent by reliance upon one side – the left side – of the brain.

There is a belief that the soul has a succession of many lives and that, when it is born into this world, it has come back from another. Well, we have reasons of our own for believing this. However, beware! One must remember that 99.99 percent of life is single-celled! So be careful which bacteria you might come back as.

Socrates said that a lot of learning seems to be not really learning but recollecting. Yes, we agree – there are truths in our mind that are already there when we are born. There is an I there – in that little one, squirming there in her crib. That I possesses its own cosmic language – a mother singing to her newborn – is attempting to create a semblance of that cosmic language that her baby might be able to respond to – until he or she is taught an earth language.

Are there consequences after death of doing evil in life? There is not enough data to answer this even poorly right now. Just keep in mind that 97 percent of the cosmos is in Darkness. It might be wise to behave properly just to avoid the uncertainty of perhaps residing in that Darkness – for an eternity.

What is evil? There are many who take lecterns and berate badgered listeners. This when every person actually has answers to this – embedded in a secret – Powerful – place – in his or her brain.

THE END

NOTES

Other Books We Have Written

This minibook is the latest in a series of books we have written over the years – as we attempt to discover the truth of things. All of these minibooks can be found on our website.

In our book, Man and the Cosmos – The Science of Everything – we hypothesize that every atom possesses consciousness! This hypothesis has been confirmed since that time from so many directions that there now is a 99.99 percent probability that it is true.

In our book , The I and the Emergence of Life, we are 99.99 percent certain that life was created by clouds, crowds of hydrogen ions.

Our book, Hegel and the I – we show how Hegel took the ideas of several philosophers who preceded him – put these ideas in a certain order and this way showed how the mind creates ideas. However, a hydrogen ion is in charge of each person’s brain activity. Therefore, Hegel is actually showing how the human brain creates ideas.

Karl Marx and the I shows how Marx took Hegel’s ideas, understood that what Hegel was really doing – was showing how the human brain creates ideas – creates tools – just as an economy creates tools! Marx could see immediately that this meant that a whole new level of economic theory was required – at the national level – Marx invented macroeconomic theory years before other people took credit for that advance in theory.

Existentialism and the I shows how there is a ‘solipsistic’ I that we are born with – however, starting at our mother’s breast we are made to change our innate cosmic viewpoint concerning things – the ‘social’ I is born – and much creativity is lost.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, R.E., Translated with Comment, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Gorgias, Menexenus – The Dialogues of Plato, Vol. 1 ( New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1984) 350 pp.

Goldstein, Rebecca Newberger, Plato at the Googleplex – Why Philosophy Won’t Go Away (New York: Pantheon Books, 2014) 459 pp.

Sowell, Thomas, The Quest for Cosmic Justice (New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1999), 214 pp.

Williams, Bernard, Plato – the Invention of Philosophy (London: Phoenix, 1999), 57 pp.

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