Sigmund Freud And The Human Brain

SIGMUND FREUD

and

THE HUMAN BRAIN

by

Kinsley Titchener, M Ed and Frank W. Andres

© Copyright, Kinsley Titchener, M Ed, Frank W. Andres, 2021.

All Rights Reserved.

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INTRODUCTION

Freud and the Science of Everything

I

In the 1970s, Mr. Andres wrote a book, Man and the Cosmos, The Science of Everything. At that time, his goal was to place the social sciences and the humanities on a biological base. Ms. Kinsley Titchener has now joined with him in this effort. This minibook is an important step towards accomplishing that task.

Why would we want to do such a thing? Well, we shall get to that in a moment. It is because of the most important of reasons.

So what is happening in this minibook is that we are taking psychology and drastically changing it. In the past when it came to observation of human beings and developing theory in the discipline of psychology, the emphasis was on behavior. When we were observing a child playing with blocks, we would ask questions such as: Is she enjoying building things? What sort of things does she build and how might this relate to her sex? When it came to experiments in psychology, the scientific emphasis was always on stimulus and response. The moment a gosling is hatched, it sees its mother and begins to follow her around. The experimenter was careful to limit the vision of a new hatchling such that the first thing it saw was the experimenter. And lo and behold, sure enough! The gosling began to persistently follow the experimenter around. Hypotheses were made. Experiments were conducted. Stimuli were presented. And responses were recorded. In this way, all of psychology collapsed into a science of behavior.

Exactly what, one might ask, was being examined by this discipline? Well, a practitioner of this profession would probably say: ‘Of course, we are most interested in the mind, especially the human mind.’ ‘

‘What about the brain?’ one might reposte. ‘The brain?’ might come the retort. That, for us is sort of a Black Box!’

There are two things that need to be said at this point. First, we need new tools! As we have said in many of our books, both large and small. ‘Humanity is in peril!’ ‘And because of this, a new science, a Science of Everything must be created and a new scientific method must be employed!’

Humanity is in trouble. Well, everyone has been alerted to the fact that global warming is a major problem. Two World Wars and three centuries of Industrial Revolution have filled the earth’s atmosphere amd oceans with pollutants. Heated oceans are melting ice caps. Ocean waters are rising threatening communities of humanity which historically have located near waterways and seas.

Still the fact is, people can move. It is possible for them to relocate away from rising waters. So as far as we are concerned. ‘Yes, global warming is an important problem. However, for us there seem to be even greater long run problems. Like, well, how about Energy?! Two-thirds of humanity has not been able to develop their countries to a level that is prosperous for all of their inhabitants. This has led to great disparities in wealth and living conditions around the globe. This must change, or the many will rise in fury. The West seems invulnerable with its police and missile silos. However, things would look different if seven billion people, poor people, grabbed pitch forks in anger! Things must be done to address these inequities. And they must begin, Now!

Modern science has astonished the world with its magnificent accomplishments. However, there are signs that even though more and more scientific literature is written every day, major breakthroughs are further and further apart. Gigantic breakthroughs shall be required for humanity to survive on this planet. And these breakthroughs at this point seem to be hundreds of years away, which will be too late! This is due mainly to the disappointing contributions being made by the universities of the world, especially ones in the United States. This reduced ability to do new things is due to two things: First, to the strict prohibition in the use of people with right hemispheric dominance in the brain, whose abilities are absolutely essential for breakthroughs in the long run. This issue we have expounded upon at length in our other books and minibooks. Second, it is due to restrictions placed by academia upon the use of certain types of research, either because of inadequacies of instrumentation, or because it would involve work that might infringe upon popular religions, or involve unethical experimentation upon live human brains.

To remedy this situation, well,we have mentioned, we need new tools! As we have said, first, we need a new science, a new Science of Everything. To obtain this, we need to place the social sciences on a biological base, along with the humanities. Yes, when the desired changes are made, philosophy, history, even the arts will be elevated in status to become dignified parts of this new Science of Man and Woman. All of these sources will provide information that will be valuable when confronting problems to be solved.

Relating all of these disciplines: the sciences,the humanities, and the arts, to the biology of the human being is desirable anyway now that it has been proved officially, definitively, by means of delineation of human DNA and comparisons of that with the DNA of the great apes, that human beings are indeed animals! Actually,we know the type of animal we are. As it turns out, we are a type of exotic chimpanzee, as our DNA is 99.3 percent the same as that congenial species. Consequently, the Science of Man and Woman, that is, what we call the ‘social sciences,’ must be reworked to explicitly incorporate a myriad of facts about the human species that have been deliberately avoided, ignored, well, just plain missed in the past, wherein which endeavor, the social sciences would be placed upon a biological base. In this way the science of man and woman will become more powerful and simultaneously will be able to talk and work together with the physical and biological disciplines and be able to confront and solve problems that traditional science has not been able to touch in the past.

The development of a new science would lead to a second step, a second tool. It must be accompanied by the development of a new scientific method whereby breakthroughs are made not as a result of experimentation, as this has become difficult,i f not impossible in many instances. Instead progress can be made by the scientist using several disciplines, attacking problems from several directions at the same time.

So how would this new science and new method work? Well, one of the basic purposes of this minibook is to demonstrate how this new science and new method can be utilized to make breakthroughs in the search for truth. With our new science, we have many disciplines available now to confront problems, extend theory, and come up with solutions. These disciplines existed before, of course, but now that they are on a biological base, they possess power that was lacking before. By using many disciplines, hypotheses can be created that would not otherwise have arisen. By using many disciplines, problems can be considered from several perspectives at once, which can increase the probability of a hypothesis of being true. When this method is employed, the objective is to increase the probability of a hypothesis of being true to be as close to 100 percent as possible. Complete certainty is impossible, of course without instrumentation.

When it comes to this minibook, we have been able to do much more than we anticipated we could do at the start. We have addressed some interesting ideas and we have come up with some new hypotheses for both psychoanalytical work and for how the brain functions, for how and why pathology emerges, and for possible remedies for these mental illnesses. However, in certain cases, we have not worked until we were close to 100 percent certain of all of our hypotheses. However, we have been able to point the way where subsequent work can be done. In general, we feel that this strategy provides scientists with a very valuable set of tools. We feel that we were able to make impressive progress in a very short space of time.

The second thing we need is a new priority in research! The world requires new sources of energy that are limitless and powerful and nonlethal for humanity. And ultimately, and surprisingly, that is what we are about here in this minibook. What connection could a book concerning psycho- analytical theory possibly have with obtaining more energy to run our economy? Okay, right here in this introduction, we shall make this connection, then we can get on with what this minibook is nominally about: psychoanalysis and the brain. Not to deprecate these topics. Combating mental illness is a serious concern. It is estimated that approximately one- third of the U.S. population is troubled, even hampered, by mental illness of one sort or the other. And then, of course, the examination of the human brain is a desperately important subject in itself.

But in the search for new energy, as we have said, we shall be using our new science and new scientific method, which will start one place and then take us to other topics that are totally unexpected. So how do we move smoothly from psychology, and the human brain to finding new sources of energy? Well, we won’t disrupt the chain of thought at this point. Instead, we shall, we shall present a strategy for finding new energy in sections of this minibook below. There you will see how ideas we will have gleaned from our examination of psychoanalytical theory and the human brain will lead directly to breakthroughs towards finding new sources of energy in

crowds, clouds of hydrogen ions!

So ultimately energy is what is foremost in our mind; yet in this book there is plenty of challenge to confront and important discoveries to be made within the discipline of psychology, and then with the investigation of the human brain. Of course, this is not the first time we have looked at psychology. As we have said, in our book, Man and the Cosmos, we made our first efforts towards converting all of the social sciences into biology. One thing we did was to relate philosophy to psychology. First, we looked at philosophy.. As we saw in our minibook about Hegel, philosophy is not just a bunch of esoteric ideas.. Actually, each philosopher was a genius, wherein one faculty in his or her mind was very highly developed. When he or she wrote, he or she was actually telling us about how the world looked from the perspective of that one faculty. When you put all these philosophies together, when you place information concerning these faculties in the proper order, you can actually show the world how the mind creates ideas! As we have said, the mind does this by moving through the processes of perception, collection, and separation.

Then we moved to psychology, which actually provided us with some biology! as it was used to tie the disciplines of philosophy and psychology together. We showed how I.Q. tests actually give information about the two sides of the brain. This information about the right and left sides of the brain surprisingly, and delightfully, coincided with the information in the philosophy section concerning the collection and separation processes in the mind. In one swoop, right there., both philosophy and psychology collapsed into biology! Mind became brain! Philosophy now can be seen as a discipline that looks at the brain from the inside out! So using our new science and new method we learned a lot, quickly. In just two chapters of Man and the Cosmos, we learned new things about philosophy, psychology, and in a basic manner, new things about how the human brain works.

Okay, now in this minibook, there is a feast awaiting you. We are going to examine the discipline of psychology itself in depth to see if we can actually utilize psychological concepts to help delineate neurological processes in the brain in more detail We are investigating neural activity that our instruments are simply not able to discern at the present time. Our results not only shows how and why the therapeutic techniques developed by Sigmund Freud work neurologically, but also we shall find that his use of a conceptual model for how the mind works is actually a metaphor for physiological functioning in the brain! We can see now how this model can lead to breakthroughs in learning how the brain works in general, how pathology develops in the brain, and from this information how suggestions concerning new remedies for mental illness may be made.

Yes! We are fighting so many battles right here, right now! all at once! The real philosopher’s stone we are seeking here right here in this minibook, the Holy Grail, is the I. What we are constantly keeping before us in our minds, in the midst of all this investigation of the human brain – and there are breakthroughs! – is the question: what can all of this tell us about aspects of the cosmos we know little about? We are talking about psychoanalytical theory. We are talking about the human brain. We are talking about the I. We are talking about cosmic energy!

This is World War! This time the battle is of a cosmic scale! Humanity is fighting for its future, for its existence! Come, join us in this endeavor!

All a Kind of String Theory

When you are reading this minibook, the first half may seem like a hard slog. The words just keep piling up. Is this not exactly the main criticism of the social sciences today? Psychology seems to be related to the mind, but no one is certain as to how this is actually the case. The fact is, that psychoanalysis is one of the few exciting things to happen in the social sciences generally, since they were created, and now even that seems to be losing the enthusiasm it generated at its beginning. When we place psychoanalysis on a biological base in the second half of this minibook, you will see the excitement return.. Finally, psychology is at last something real. Breakthroughs now may be made that that can help create a viable and progressive future for man- and womankind. Please feel free to skip ahead at any time .in your reading. There just seems to be a wasteland in the first half of words, words, and more words.

Yep, all of what is addressed in this minibook is really important, and the need for a minibook like this is another symptom of the fact that the right side of brain has been misplaced, well, just simply forgotten behind a bedroom door or somewhere. We simply cannot continue to move with only half of a scientific brain. This situation calls for additional thinking about what we are doing here. Psychoanalytical theory is a highly respected practice, it is the one area of the social sciences that has risen above mere words towards biology. Or so it would seem. The fact is, there are problems with the practice, and an amazing book, Écrits, a 800 paged book by a psychiatrist, Jacques Lacan addresses these. His book is a heroic example of one side of the brain, the left analytical side of the brain, working alone and is a graphic example where working with one side of the brain can take us, and leave us! Dr. Lacan spent about twenty years becoming a medical doctor and then a university professor. Well, that is what you have to do if you are to be equipped nowadays to talk to someone you don’t know lying down, well, in your own office. The thing is, he went through all of this and was relishing the moment of starting such an envious, prestigious occupation with its envious, prestigious income, when he learned around the year 1950 to his chagrin (What the hell!) that psychoanalysis was no longer an accredited pursuit, as in, well, that no one with a serious intellectual inclination was any longer willing to say that the practice really, actually cures anyone. Well, a bit red-faced, Mr. Lacan was intent on fighting back, and he did sofuriously, fervently, with words a mile long; he almost single- handedly tried to ‘salvage’ and ‘reclaim’ prestige for what had become a sort of religious belief that was failing. In actuality, he did the cause little good, for he was a man filled with hubris and, as we say, a man filled with long, esoteric words, seemingly with a vision of trying to build a place in the history of books for himself. In his book, he first attempts to prop up the psychoanalytical process; then he turns around and criticizes it himself and attempts to build a whole new approach to replace it, one which would be based more on linguistics, mathematics, and analytical wizardry than on straight forward Freudian practices. More and more through 800 pages, Lacan’s theories seem to become just another sort of remnant from the sciences of the ‘Big Bang’. I mean, is not psychoanalysis in its essence just like all of the rest of the social science gobbly-gook. We showed in our book Man and the Cosmos, how all of these so-called sciences of man and woman are actually ‘virtual’ worlds, similacra for actual things and systems, plastic replacements for actual organic entities.

Well, when considering Lacan, what is apparent now. from today’s perspective some years later, we can see Lacan saw a way to perhaps salvage something of dignity from a ruined career. It can be seen now that he was properly aligning himself with a new inclination, a new celestial blessed endeavor. Well, if he could not claim prestige for work conducted in the field of psychotherapy, then he could, and perhaps saw that he should now become, a bright star in a new small galaxy of bright stars that was emerging in full glory as a part of the universe that had not been noticed before. He would become a French philosopher! a colleague of sorts of such luminaries as Jacques Derrida, and Jean Baudrillard and the rest of those pedantic. cynical English teachers.

Where, what, by the way, did all that blazing celestial dust fade into?

But in the end, of course, Lacan had a point. You can say the magic words: ‘Unconscious’, ‘ego’, ‘regression’ and the rest over an over, and sound like the voice of God rendering Eternal Reckoning to the Earth, well, at least for a while. However, before long, all of those fancy words just become sort of Avatars in a fancy game of Clue with the murderer, well, symptoms of mental illness revealed in the Chance cards, whoops, that’s another game; or Kermit is the ego, Miss Piggy is the id and Big Bird is the superego, in this bright infantile world. Well, the point is, in the end, if all of this is not related to biology, then all of psychoanalysis simply reverts to mounds of language and perhaps childish games, a type of string theory for psychologists which collapses into analysis and mathematics with no real world anywhere around.

So exactly what was this psychoanalytic theory, that held so much promise, but subsequently did not disappear so much, as it just quickly became one hundred variations played upon itself, leaving Freud’s original concepts and strategies in the dust.

PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY

Catharsis

So where did this idea of psychoanalysis come from anyway?

There was a lady, one Frl. Anaa O, it seems, who actually discovered it. Well, she reclined and let a psychiatrist talk to her. Freud read the resultant case study, took what the lady had said seriously, and he was on his way..

This is what happened: Freud worked from 1876 to1882 in the physiological laboratory at the University of Vienna under E.W. Von Brueke and later in the Institute for Anatomy under T.H.Meynert. Freud at this point of his life was actually an excellent researcher, concentrating on the physiology of the brain, and he actually made important breakthroughs regarding its function. Subsequently he found working with the brain in a more abstract way, more fascinating.

From December, 1880, to June, 1882, one Dr. Joseph Breuer, an acquaintance of Freud, treated what has become recognized as a classic case of hysteria, that of Frl. Anna O. The patient was an unusually intelligent young lady of twenty-one, who developed a museum of symptoms in connection with her father’s fatal illness. Among them were paralysis of three limbs with contractures and anesthesias, severe and complicated disturbances of sight and speech, inability to take food, and a distressing nervous cough, which was the occasion of Breuer being called in. More interesting, however, and we never hear about such marvelous deviations again, at least from Freud, was the presence of two distinct states of consciousness, one a fairly normal one, the other that of a naughty and troublesome child. It was a case of double personality. The transition from one personality to the other was marked by a phase of autohypnosis from which she would awake clear and mentally normal. Personally, we would have been most interested in this phenomenon, if we had been Freud, and consequently, the entire history of psychoanalytic theory would have been different, if it had occurred at all.

Nevertheless, all involved were concerned with less interesting things.

The young lady was in a normal sort of state of mental activity when Breuer visited her, and she soon got into the habit of relating to him the disagreeable events of the day, including terrifying hallucinations, after which she felt relief. The lady just would not stop talking it would seem, as if she somehow felt talking might help her situation. On one occasion, she related the details of the first appearance of a particular symptom and, to Breuer’s great astonishment, this resulted in its complete disappearance. Perceiving the value of doing so, he and the patient continued with one symptom after another, with her terming the procedure ‘the talking cure’ or ‘chimney sweeping.’

After a while, Breuer supplemented this evening proceeding by inducing an artificial hypnosis every morning until the mass of material that was recorded was becoming overwhelming. In those days, to devote hours every day for more than a year to a single patient, and an hysteric at that, was unheard of and signified very special qualities of patience, interest, and insight. But the psychotherapeutic armamentarium (yes…words…and more words) was thereby enriched with the method which Breuer called ‘catharsis.’ This lady whose name was actually Bertha Pappenheim has been credited with the discovery of the cathartic method, and her real name deserves to be commemorated. Today the term ‘catharsis’ is associated with both of their names, and is still used extensively. Freud took careful note of all this experience.

According to the cathartic hypotheses, hysterical symptoms originate through the energy of a mental process being withheld from conscious influence and being diverted into bodily innervation (conversion). A hysterical symptom would thus be a substitute for an omitted mental act and a reminiscence of the occasion which should have given rise to that act. And, according to this view, recovery would be a result of the liberation of the affect that had gone astray and of its discharge along a normal path (abreaction). Whew!

Cathartic treatment gave excellent therapeutic results, but it was found that they were not permanent, and that they were dependent on the personal relation between the patient and the physician..

Hypnosis

We know that all of this is beginning to become too much.

But please hang in there. .We guarantee that it will be worth it.

To continue:

Another input into Freud’s thinking was related to hypnosis. In 1885 Freud went to study in Paris under the great neurologist J.M. Charcot. The most important impression that Charcot’s teaching made on Freud was his revolutionary views on the subject of hysteria. In the first place, that such an eminent neurologist should so seriously concern himself with this topic was in itself startling. Before that time hysteria was regarded either as a matter of simulation and at best ‘imagination’ (which seemed to mean much the same), on which no reputable physician would waste his time, or else a peculiar disorder of the womb which could be treated, and sometimes was treated, by extirpation of the clitoris. The ‘wandering’ womb could also be driven back into its place by the chemical valerian, the smell of which it supposedly disliked. Now, thanks to Charcot, the whole matter had become, almost overnight, a perfectly respectable disease of the nervous system. Charcot’s teaching was undoubtedly successful in sanctioning a more scientific attitude toward hysteria in French medical circles, and most important, with Freud himself.

Much of what Charcot demonstrated could not be talked away, and constituted a permanent gain in knowledge. He made a systematic and comprehensive study of the manifestations of hysteria, one that made the diagnosis of it more definite, and also showed that many affections otherwise attributed were really of an hysterical nature. He also laid stress on the existence of the same complaint in the male sex. All of this, was supposed to be a female, ‘witch’, type thing, but now it could be classified among the various types of nervous diseases. It was now a subject which called for much rethinking. Above all, and this was Charcot’s greatest contribution, he demonstrated that in suitable subjects he could by the use of hypnotism elicit hysterical symptoms, paralysis, tremors, anesthesias, and more, that were in the smallest detail identical with those of the spontaneous hysteria as seen in his other patients, and as had been described in full in the Middle Ages when they were ascribed to demonic possession!

The revolutionary idea in all this was that whatever the unknown neurological basis of hysteria might be, (It should be noted that the physiology of the brain is nowhere to be seen at this point.) the fact was that the symptoms themselves could be both treated and abolished by ideas alone!!! Mental illness for the first time was seen to have a psychogenic origin. This opened the door to a medical motive for investigating the psychology of patients.

Wow, this does go on!

On October 15, 1886, Freud gave an account of Charcot’s grouping of hysterical symptoms into four-stage seizures: the typical visual, sensory, and motor disturbances, and the hysterogenetic zones. This definition of positive signs changed the prevailing conception of hysteria from being merely a vague malingering sort of thing. According to Charcot, there was no connection between the disease and the genital organs, which had caused so much commotion, well, sensation, and interest! in the past. Or was there any difference between its manifestations in male and female. Equal opportunity for all! it would seem.

Freud utilized hypnosis in his practice for some time with success. However, there were problems. For one: he was not always able to induce hypnosis, either at all or deeply enough for his needs. As he said, ‘With the idea of perfecting my hypnotic technique, I made a journey to Nancy in the summer of 1889 and spent several weeks there. I witnessed the moving spectacle of old (Dr. A.A.) Liébault working among the poor women and children of the laboring classes. I was a spectator of (Dr. H.) Bernheim’s astonishing experiments upon his hospital patients, and I received the profoundest impression of the possibility that there could be powerful mental processes which nevertheless remained hidden from the consciousness of man.’

Bernheim frankly admitted that his great therapeutic successes by means of suggestion were achieved only in his hospital practice and not with his private patients. For the time being Freud concentrated upon the power of suggestion and its therapeutic effects utilizing hypnosis as the major tool for interaction, although he was on the look out for better ways of doing this.

Freud felt sure there were many secrets hidden behind the manifest symptoms, and his restless energy was directed towards penetrating them. He wrote later that when using hypnotism he had from the first employed it not only for giving therapeutic suggestions but also for the purpose of tracing back the history of the symptom, this was in accordance with Breuer’s cathartic method.

As we say, Freud began to lose faith in the use of hypnotism, and now for additional reasons. For one, its effects seemed to be transitory partly in that they seemed to be often brought about by the patient in order to please the physician, and hence to fade. However, there was a part of Charcot’s teaching Freud still held to: .the importance of traumas in the symptomatology of hysteria (Whew…these words!) If the patient’s brother had thrown a toad at her in childhood that would apparently suffice to account for the permanent phobia of such creatures. The idea of personal thoughts (wishes) of an unacceptable nature in general as being important is recorded for the first time only three years later.

In 1892 there was a paper by Freud reporting a successful cure by means of hypnotism. The case was that of a woman who, although intensely desirous of feeding her child at the breast, was prevented from doing so by various hysterical symptoms, vomiting, anorexia, nervosa, insomnia, and agitation. Two treatments consisting of suggestion during hypnosis sufficed to remove all the obstructive symptoms. In this paper, Freud is mainly concerned with the existence of what he called ‘antithetic ideas’ that interfere with conscious intentions.

These ‘antithetic ideas’ operated differently in hysteria, and in other forms of neurotic trouble, forms which were then loosely grouped under the term of ‘neurasthenia.’ Characteristic of hysteria is the subject’s unawareness of the opposition, but he or she finds his or her will quite thwarted by some bodily disturbance produced by this blocking mechanism. In neurasthenia, the subject is aware of the conflict, it weakens his or her will power, but he or she somehow manages to carry out his or her intentions. (He, she, his,her, The English language with its specific pronouns lumbers on in this feminist age) At this time, Freud instituted no inquiry into what these ideas are or why there should exist at all a counterwill interfering with conscious intentions.

Assuming at this point merely that these frustrating, blocking ideas exist, all Freud would say was that they manifest themselves strongly or gain the upper hand in moments of excitement or exhaustion. He hypothesized that the exhaustion weakens the ‘primary consciousness,’ which Freud would soon term the ‘ego,’ much more than it does the antithetic ideas alien and opposed to it, ideas which are often entirely dissociated from it. There is a hint here of Breuer’s teaching that neurotic symptoms originate only in a particular mental state (his ‘hypnoid condition’), which Freud described simply as a state of exhaustion.

Psychoanalysis

We now come to the all-important matter of the transition from the cathartic method to the ‘free association’ method, from which psychoanalysis dates. It was through devising this new method that Freud was enabled to penetrate into the previously unknown realm of the Unconscious proper and to make the profound discoveries with which his name is indelibly associated. The devising of this method was one of the two great accomplishments of Freud’s scientific life, the other being his self-analysis through which he learned to explore the child’s early early sexual life, including the famous Oedipus Complex, and the interpretation of dreams.

Hard painful progress seems to have been his characteristic way of advance, up to this point, in particular the period 1875 to 1892. The rest of the 1890’s finally were otherwise. Once he got underway, one piece of insight after another followed in rapid succession.

There can be no exact date for the discovery of the ‘free association’ method. It seems to have evolved step by step between 1892 and 1895, becoming steadily refined and purified using the major tools from the initial period: with the hypnosis, suggestion, pressing parts of the body with the hand, and questioning, that accompanied it at its inception.

First, was the matter of hypnotism. Freud, of course, had a considerable experience with the cathartic method in previous years using hypnosis as a primary tool. However, with time, Freud could see that with many of his patients he had been unable to hypnotize them at all or as deeply as he then thought necessary, and so it was that many times he was working with subjects who were unsuitable for the cathartic method..

Another problem with hypnotism was that he was finding that there could be great therapeutic help for the patient in the relationship between subject and therapist, which seemed to be thwarted by hypnotism.

These were two of the reasons that Freud began to search for some other method where he would not be so dependent upon the hypnotizability (whoa!) of the patient, and the need for hypnosis, in general.

He explained years later how hypnotism conceals the important phenomena of resistance and transference, which were to become the essential features of the new psychoanalytical practice and theory.

Therefore, in cases where hypnosis was not working well, he remembered a remark made by Bernhiem to the effect that things experienced in hypnosis were only apparently forgotten afterward and that they could at any time be brought into recollection if only the physician insisted forcibly enough that the patient knew them. Freud reasoned that this should equally be true for the forgotten memories in hysteria, and in neurosis, in general. He subsequently tried what he called a ‘concentration’ technique, ‘one which I later elaborated into a method.’ The case of one Frl. Elisabeth was the first one in which he dispensed with hypnotism and used the new technique. It was also, it should be noted, the first one where he felt satisfied with the completeness of what he termed the ‘psychical analysis.’

And so, here is the method that began to be devised: The patient, lying with closed eyes, was asked to concentrate her or his attention on a particular symptom and try to recall any memories that might throw light on its origin. When no progress was being made, Freud would press her forehead with his hand and assure her that then some thoughts or memories would indubitably come to her. Sometimes in spite of that nothing would seem to happen even when the pressure of the hand was repeated. Then perhaps on the fourth attempt, the patient would bring out what had occurred to her mind, but with the comment: ‘I could have told you that the first time, but I didn’t think it was what you wanted.’ Such experiences confirmed his confidence in the device, which indeed seemed to him infallible. They also made him give the strict injunction to ignore all censorship and to express every thought even if they considered it to be irrelevant, unimportant, or too unpleasant. This was the first movement towards the later ‘free association’ method.

Freud was still given to urging, physical pressing of parts of the body, and questioning, which he felt to be hard but necessary work. On one historic occasion, however, the patient, again Frl. Elizsabeth, reproved him for interrupting her flow of thought by his questions. He took the hint, and thus made another step towards free association. By 1904 the only relic of the old hypnosis period that remained was the patient’s reclining on the couch.

At first sight these steps might seem to be curious ones to have been taken. It meant replacing a systematic and purposeful search with a known aim in view with an apparently blind and uncontrolled meandering. However, Freud found the changes to be greatly beneficial, as he intuitively thought they might be. Instead of dismissing the wandering associations as accidental, unconnected, and meaningless, as others might have done, somehow he could see there must be some definite agency guiding and determining the course of those thoughts. He would be confirmed in this by noting that every now and then a thought or memory would emerge that would reveal the meaning of the preceding train.

Early in Freud’s practice he had detected an unmistakable unwillingness on the part of his patients to disclose memories that were painful or unwelcome to them. This opposition he termed ‘resistance,’ and he soon connected it with the ‘repression’ that had led to certain memories being replaced by symptoms. It could not have been very difficult to surmise that the roundabout meanderings were an expression of this resistance, an attempt to postpone the emergence of the significant memory, and yet they followed a route ultimately connected with it. This would justify his patience in following the trains of thought with the closest attention and in the greatest detail.

The first thing Freud observed in his endeavor to trace back the patient’s memories was that they did not stop at the starting point of the symptom, or even at the unpleasant ‘traumatic event’ which would see to be its cause, but instead insisted on going further back in a continuous series. The memories kept going back and back, into childhood itself, and Freud soon saw that here was some explanation of the old controversy concerning the importance of inherited (genetic) disposition on the one hand, and of acquired (traumatic) factors on the other. Now he was realizing that early experiences, with or without heredity combined, constitute the predisposition. A traumatic event unmistakably concerned in the genesis of a symptom, but seemingly quite banal in itself, was found to produce its effects only if it had become associated with some such earlier mental experience (or attitude) which was neither traumatic nor pathogenic. This was the ‘predisposition’ necessary for the later traumatic event to become pathogenic. This manner of reacting to a later event according to the early associations, he termed ‘regression’.

He gradually noticed that a remarkable number of the significant memories concerned sexual experiences. This led his practice into a new direction, which soon attracted attention to his practice! which he in a way had been hoping for, but in the end not the sort of attention he actually desired. He never, it is true, subscribed to the view that sexual disturbances were the invariable and specific causes of neurotic affections, but he went a very long way in this direction.

Self-Analysis

Please keep hanging in there.

There is much evidence that for ten years or so, roughly comprising the 1890s, Freud suffered from a very considerable psychoneurosis. However, even in the worst times, he never ceased to function. It was just in these years, particularly 1897-1890 when the neurosis was at its height, that he did his most original work. He of course recognized the existence of his problems. He would later doubtless have classified it as an anxiety hysteria. It consisted essentially in extreme changes of mood, and the only respects in which the anxiety got localized were occasional attacks of dread of dying and anxiety about traveling by rail. The alternations of mood were between periods of elation, excitement, and self-confidence on the one hand, and periods of severe depression, doubt, and inhibition on the other.. (This sounds bipolar to us.)

It was in the summer of 1897 that Freud undertook a most heroic feat, a psychoanalysis of his own unconscious. Two important parts of Freud’s researches are intimately connected with his self-analysis: the interpretation of dreams; and his growing appreciation of infantile sexuality. The overcoming of his own resistances gave Freud a much clearer insight into those of his patients, and he could now understand their changes of mood far better. His analysis, as was always the case in his work, produced no magical results at once. But as usual, Freud’s determination to win through never faltered., and ultimately, it thoroughly conquered. The concrete rewards for battling his afflictions were two: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, in which he documented in full what he learned from therapy about his own life, that children have sexual feelings ‘which every nursemaid knows’; and The Interpretation of Dreams,, in which he revealed his findings concerning how ‘night dreams are just as much a wish fulfillment as day dreams.’

The Ego, Id, and Superego

All right! Now we are entertaining ideas that we have heard about before. When a layperson thinks of Freud and psychoanalysis, one usually thinks of three things: the ego, id, and superego. The ego is kind of what you are. You putt around doing things. The id is that neat, maybe a bit naughty part of you that is related to sex., And then there is the super ego,, which is mainly conscience, which defines good and bad behavior, that is, what your family, probably mostly what your father thinks or thought and promulgated as you were growing up. Also, there might exist higher social levels of constraints: like your friends, church, the police. Their ideas of right and wrong become your ideas.

See, this psychology stuff is easy! we thought. There are just three things like characters from a Peanuts comic strip where each character denotes a part of a person’s personality, .each with its own quirks and inclinations.

In real life, things in the psychoanalytical world would not be so easy.

First of all, a major complication is that Freud did not believe in the I.

(What!…A person can be a doctor, professor, therapist, professional of the highest sort, and there is no I !?) Well, Freud felt that there is no scientific verification that the I exists; you can’t measure it, locate it anywhere in the brain. Well, so, it just doesn’t exist. What remains of it is primarily remnants. he guessed. As a consequence, what Freud called the ‘ego’ amounted to what a person mainly thinks of when he or she thinks of him- or herself. There are two parts here, supposedly: one part views the self as a whole something as to opposed to other ‘selves’ and things outside of it;.and the second part is aware of what it himself, what the ego is able to do, which is perceive think, and act. For Freud this was mostly awareness that the self can talk, talk, talk. So naturally when he worked with patients, it would be by means of talking that he would interact with them. Supposedly, the heart of the story about the ego is about a sort of a knight who goes off to battle every day against three forces: the id, the superego, and the outside world!

Then there is the id, which is located mainly in the unconscious; the latter term is a very tricky one for Freud, the unconscious for him amounted to about the same as one’s libido, a source of personal energy, sex. And libido was about the same as the id, so, Help! What does any of this mean in terms of physiology, in terms of anything real?

Well anyway, the id was located primarily somewhere else than where the ego was located, and it was filled with sexual urges,, primal animal passions and such..

And then there was the superego, which was located primarily in the unconscious also hidden away somewhere, and could come pouncing out at a moment’s notice to yell at a person when he or she does something wrong..

Okay, but then these three things were really even more complicated.

The ego could be part of the unconscious when it leaped out and tried to repress certain thoughts that are threatening to emerge from the past to frighten a person or torment him or her.

And, yes, the id was certainly somewhere else. One would not like to have sex hanging over one when he or she is interacting with others. Yet, there are times when it becomes part of the ego and is a participant of sorts in those special moments.

The final complication is this: the superego is hidden away just waiting to pounce on one, and it indeed does pounce, believe you me! There does certainly seem to be a lot of pouncing and baloney going on here. And when this pouncing occurs, well, the superego can become part of the ego. So hear the Word…of the Lord!

There are Two Types of ‘Instinct’

Words, more and more words.. We apologize, but all of this is necessary.

So, in addition to all of the other stuff (above, please), there are also two types of instincts.

One of these is comprised of the sexual instincts or Eros. These instincts are by far the more conspicuous and accessible to study. Part of these obviously are located with the id in its dealings with the world, but it is also linked to self-preservation, which is very much a part of the ego and its concerns.

Then there is a contrasting set of instincts, a confusing bunch which is difficult for most people to grasp. Well, supposedly there is a death wish at the bottom of this second pile of instincts, as if every living thing comes with an expiration date, that is, a date when not only does it cease to exist, but apparently is ready to welcome that end. For most of one’s life the desire and fight to live, that is, the first set of instincts takes precedence, but ultimately that instinct fades and the death wish is allowed to unfold.

Well, as controversial and unbelievable as these ideas may be, there are other ideas attached to them that are more palatable. Supposedly, what happens is: as an individual matures, the instinct to destroy oneself is overridden by a desire, a need to destroy others. Now I am not certain if this idea is actually more comforting! However, we are assured by authorities, by those supposedly in the know, that this could be construed as a positive step in a sort of evolution of mental progress. Well, finally! Yes! Progress! The word we all were desperately seeking in these pages of words.

What we are really hoping for here in all this is that the death wish ultimately will becomes a desire for the death of the father, (What?!). and the death of his strict rules for life. Well, Okay! Now the latter part of this statement is more comforting. I mean, all of this madness might be acceptable for at least for a few moments., if, and only if, the wish for a new set of rules could emerge somehow from all of this, would somehow become predominant. So what seemed to be a call for death and destruction, like in Yea, Nietzsche! actually in the end becomes a way towards transformation of a life and the initiation of a whole new set of actions! All of this actually could signal a triumphant step of ascendance and conquering by a person’s individual will, rising up from repression and neurosis towards robust mental health! Halleluja!

Whew! So when it comes to instincts, there are two kinds: the ones that are sex and life preserving in their orientation; and those which are destructive yet in the end potentially transforming. Both of these instincts come together in a sexual frenzy, entitled, The Oedipus Complex.

Oh, Lord!

Yes, sex is a crazy thing anyway, so we might as well face this thing right now! Sex is so different in importance and expression with respect to both of the sexes, and then someone says that sex is operating every minute in a subterranean manner in ones psyche, As a psychoanalyst would say in his or her gobbily gook of words: ‘All of these sexual thoughts and conflicts will ultimately find expression, if a therapist is alert, in a patient’s words, words,words.. There are no specific causes of nervous disorders. The question of whether a conflict finds a healthy solution or leads to a neurotic inhibition of function depends upon the relative forces involved. The most important conflict with which a child is faced is his relation with his parents is the Oedipus Complex, and it is in attempting to grapple with a problem like this that a person eventually succumbs to a neurosis.’

But things are not all bad, there is a thing called sublimation. What we mean is: mental illness can actually have its beneficial side! Well, what happens is that you do great things, because of those naughty things you did when you were six. When you succeed, then what you did won’t seem so bad. This ia a sort of a compensation. This is when the reactions against the instinctual demands of the Oedipus Complex are the source of some of the most precious and socially important achievements of the human mind!Sublimation. Witness! Robert Schumann’s craziness led to his impossibly varied innovation at the piano, which was emulated and absorbed by much of the music that followed in the nineteenth century. And this sort of thing probably holds true not only for the life of individuals but also in the history of the human species as a whole. If some people hadn’t gone nuts, we would probably still be living in caves.

Lastly, when it comes to instinct, there is the superego, which as you may recall is the moral factor which dominates the ego. It actually has its origin in the process of overcoming the Oedipus Complex.

Yes, in the end, there is sex, everywhere you look!

Other Stuff

Transference.. By transference is meant what is a striking peculiarity of neurotics, wherein they develop towards their physician emotional relations, both of an affectionate and hostile character, which are not based upon the actual situation but are derived from their relations towards their parents (the Oedipus Complex, of course). Transference is proof of the fact that adults have not overcome their former childhood dependencies. It coincides with the force which has been named suggestion, and it is only by learning to make use of it that the physician is enabled to induce the patient to overcome his or her internal resistances and do away with his repressions. Thus, psychoanalytic treatment acts as a second education of the adult, as a correction to this education as a child.

Dreams. We have really addressed all we have addressed without mentioning one of the most fascinating things we have heard about Freud’s work. I mean, one of Freud’s greatest adversaries, Carl Jung, made dreams a showcase within his therapeutic process. According to Jung, dreams can tell a lot about a person and his or her mental problems.. As far as Freud was concerned. and he wrote a whole book about dreams, The Interpretation of Dreams, the major thing about dreams is that they tap into our emotional working memory. The latter terminology refers to part of the human physiology that we, at this point, know so little about (see below). Yes, this memory does exist, and dreams show us the types of things that are in this memory. As far as actual use in therapy, Freud found that standard psychoanalytic processes were better at identifying problems and curing them. Dreams really didn’t work so well for him. What Freud found was that when he placed a person under hypnosis, which is a kind of sleep, wherein one might capture ideas that a conscious mind might screen out, the results were largely negative.

In addition, neuroscience has found that sex is a major bed partner with us at night in our sleep, popping into our below conscious territory every so many minutes. So, Freud found that dreams were related most to wish fulfillment. I guess that would mean visions of success in terms of sexual conquests possibly, since it seems that sex is what is mostly on one’s mind in sleep. There is sexual arousal every so many minutes, all through the night. As a consequence, dreams are more likely related to these kinds of stimuli, and not to repressed ideas that are causing problems..

Another thing about dreams is that they tell us about how the emotional working memory actually operates (What these words mean will become clear when we finally talk about parts of the brain and their activities below). Well, what dreams tell us about this type of memory is that a character in a dream and the situation in which the characters may be in .tend to be melanges of several memories and do not come from single specific episodes from the past, which supports our suspicion that the emotional working memory is accessed by emotional stimuli that were present at the time the initial memories were laid down, and are not related to some playing out of some mentally troubling episodes in infancy and the like (See, we have already jumped ahead to the more interesting half of this minibook.) When it comes to dreams, there are aspects that are truly important,

as we shall see when we investigate parts of the brain, specifically when it comes to the I, where the I is located and what it is all about. When we investigate these things, then dreams will suddenly tell us things that are truly surprising, but that must wait til the excitement that spills out and over everything in the pages below, after we have negotiated all of these words,. words,. words..

In the meantime, and to complete the thoughts of this section:

We are certain that we have not addressed subjects to the extent that a reader might like, such as more about sublimation, more about instincts. We are sure to be missing several books worth of words, words, words. We have skipped some tropics completely, like the part played by symbolism, the problem of ambivalence, details concerning libido development, and the relative importance of infancy, puberty, and adolescence. There is the genesis of neurosis. There are technical issues like how long treatment should last and how the transference relationship should be handled and,what are genetic and what are cultural or personal susceptibilities.

Well, after a while we feel that we have just read enough, learned enough, heard enough during these months of work At this point,.we simply have had enough..

Because in the end, all of this appears to be: Well, as Seinfield would say, most of this just devolves into.

It all Becomes ‘Jabber Yabber’

Well, all of this has been enlightening and of some interest. However, according to Lacan who was obviously an expert in all of these things, well, he would be the first to remind you of that: most of what has been elucidated is in the end irrelevant. He would swear that the most important thing listed among Freud’s major contributions to the world is his emphasis upon language, and there is little in all of what Freud did that tends to disagree with this.

So as we have said, as far as psychoanalysts are concerned: the I in its essence is nothing, and I do mean nothing, but talk. Because of this, as we have said, Freud relied upon talk, talk, talk, not only for diagnosis of pathology, but also for remedies for the ailments.

Well, most important in Lacan’s way of thinking is that there are no longer any ego’s, id’s or superego’s to speak of when you are confronting mental illness, when the air is so full of talk. In the end, as far as Lacan could see, the work of psychoanalysis amounts to two things. When work needs to be done, there are only two things a therapist can work with: there is the Signifier and the Signified. Yes! In the end there need be only these two important, no, two great, monumental words.. One might recognize that these words come from the discipline, no, the powerful science of linguistics! How great is that discipline? Well, you could have asked any French philosopher during the period 1960 to 1990, during the heroic epoch of post-modernism. And they would have told you that there is really never anything else. Wherever did all this go?

The Signifier. Well, that is, of course, the patient. And the Signified?Well, of course, those are the precious words among the rubble of pebbles rolled out of the patients mouth over months of talking to the therapist. Not every word that is enunciated by a patient embodies an important idea Signified within it, of course. Perhaps one out of every thousand words might be such a precious word, one that might mean something to the therapist. Yes, such words are Royalty, they possess the Signified.

And the therapist? He or she is like an I,I think. In psychoanalytical theory, neither therapist nor I really exist, it would seem. If therapy is to progress satisfactorily on its course, the job of the therapist is just to sit there, not speak much, never intrude a thought or a word that might distract from any possible progress. The one rule for the Signifier, well, of course, we are talking abut the patient here, is to tell all without restraint. No words are too personal, embarrassing, or parenthetical, or are ever too much! The job of the Signifier is to empty every word that enters his or her head out into the blinding light of examination. And the one rule for the therapist is to sit quietly and attempt to discern the Signified midst the detritus in the patient’s speech. This reminds one of the alchemist’s quest to create gold out of muck!

The therapist thus becomes a sort of detective, waiting quietly, patiently, alert every second for the possible arrival of clues that can lead to a remedy.

To sum up then, in the words of the profession, the psychoanalytical process becomes this: ‘Therapeutic results of psychoanalysis depend upon the replacement of unconscious mental acts by conscious ones. This replacement is effected by overcoming internal resistances in the patient’s mind..’

It is when psychotherapy became a game of Clue, that other people began to feel that they too could make their own contributions to a game this fun, which helped lead to the decline of the usefulness of the practice.

Was all of this just part of the post WWI exuberance in the arts and sciences when many felt a new world now must be born, now that the world of economics and rationality had ended so miserably, had culminated only in massive humiliation and death?

Is there any thing of value we can take away from all of this? Well, yes, there is always seems to be some benefit from just having a person lie down and having some one talk to him or her, of course.

So now you are a bona fide expert on Freud. I mean it! If you are in a bar and the topic of Freud comes up, you are good to go!

However, whatever do all these words mean when we are considering the real world? – that is, when we are considering the brain?

For now. and here comes the payoff for all these pages of work!: might we not now be able to tease from these concepts, these words, words, words, since they were the result of many patient’s testimonies about how their brains work, viewed, as a philosopher does, from the inside out, might we not now derive information from all of this, important information about the brain itself!? Might not these words lead to exciting new discoveries concerning how the brain works, and to ideas for remedies for mental illness. Let us see what happens when we place this social science upon a biological base, might we not end up with unexpected ideas that can help the world in ways that we never thought psychology would be able to do? And unexpectedly, all of this may actually lead to ideas concerning the cosmos, the creation of life, and new sources of energy!

Let us look…

NORMAL HUMAN BRAIN FUNCTIONING, PATHOLOGY,

AND POSSIBLE REMEDIES

Freud and the Science of Everything

II

As we have said, we have shown in past minibooks and larger books how a new science, a Science of Everything, must be created and a new scientific method must be employed, wherein the Science of Man and Woman, commonly known as the ‘social sciences’, would be placed upon a biological base. In this way the Science of Man and Woman will become more powerful and simultaneously all disciplines will then be able to talk and work together on problems that traditional science could not touch in the past. This new science. is accompanied by a new scientific method whereby breakthroughs can be found not by experimentation where this has become difficult. Such progress is made possible by the use of several disciplines attacking problems from several directions at the same time.

As we have said, in the past we have shown how philosophy is actually a discipline that looks at the human brain from the inside out. In our book, Man and the Cosmos, we have shown how the disciplines of philosophy and psychology can work together to show that this is true.

Well, then, is not this psychoanalytical stuff exactly like this? Is it not like philosophy in that it has patients looking at their brains from the inside out, describing their experiences in detail to the analyst, and then the analyst using what is heard to discern mental problems, and then attempting to use various devices, tools, words or medicine, to correct these problems? It will be noticed that in both of these endeavors, in both philosophy and psychology, the primary attack upon problems is with words and more words, either with great piles of philosophical ideas or great piles of testimony from patients. In the case of both philosophy and psychology, it will be noticed that what is being examined here is never brain, which any person would surmise should be central to any curious investigation of mental activity. As we have said, physiology in the social sciences is always left as a sort of Black Box.

For example., exactly what. is the ‘unconscious’?

Come on now…this is not that difficult.

Of course, what we are talking about here, and I do mean talking and talking and talking about is: memory! I mean there are other unconscious aspects to human life. What I mean is, there are the things we do without out conscious control. Sometimes we do these things out of habit. However, sometimes more formally there is behavior that is programmed into our DNA. In other animals we would call this behavior, ‘instinct’. Well, Freud is obviously not talking about things like this when he uses the word unconscious’ as part of his therapy.

And memory is not an abstract entity. Memory is part of the human brain. The human brain has not been studied very satisfactorily in the past because of all the constraints mentioned earlier in this minibook. Well, on our desk we have pages of pictures of different parts of the human brain, from every angle. But what are these parts of brain doing? Well, in this respect, that is, when it comes to activity within the brain, things are not so clear. So we are going to try to start correcting this problem, right now, right here, using our new science, and our new method.

In this endeavor, we are using in our science the powers of two sides of the brain. Kinsley has genius analytical ability associated with the left side of the brain, and Frank has the highest I.Q. ever measured for the right side of the brain. We are working together like McCartney and Lennon.. We insist that this time, unlike with the Beatles, that the left side of the brain be placed first in the credits, in this case, because ‘Ladies First!’

The I

So here it is! The I! Rumors concerning its non-existence, have been greatly exaggerated!

So when it comes to psychoanalysis, first of all, what was all this business about there being no I? – that there is nothing in our brain ‘looking out’? How could any scientist assert such nonsense?! Any infant knows better than this! The two of us have been studying the I for 15 years now. We are experts when it comes to talking about it. We have now even located it in the brain, although we were not the first to have done so.. We shall come that.

So, witness these things!

Okay, first of all, one result of having studied the I for an extended length of time. is that we have have discovered what the I. really is. Really!

` Okay, now Descartes showed us how to examine the workings of the brain without instruments. I mean, come on! You are inside that head of yours, you are the closest thing to your brain, you must be able to say something about it! So Descartes proposed that we might just look inside our head and tell ourselves everything we can about how the brain is operating. Some things are very obvious; they are ideas that clear and distinct. Other ideas are less so. So the most obvious thing is: I think, therefore, I am. I mean, obviously some idiot just made this last statement, it was the result of not being able to see the I. All I can do is tell you what what the I does. It is ‘looking out’, and I know this because I have thought things over and realize that I really do have some empirical knowledge about my own brain. What I am experiencing is just as valid evidence of what the brain as evidence supplied by any instruments we might employ.

Well, we have gone though all this elsewhere in our various books, so we shall jump ahead.

There is something in my head ‘looking out’, just exactly what might this something be. Well, an educated guess is that the I in our head is a particle of some sort. We can jump to such a wild conclusion because we know from our studies in physics that the cosmos is made of one thing: particles. And only particles. And so this prompted our guess.

And which particle might this be, that is ‘looking out’?

Well, it might be a particle of light. I mean, ‘lux fiat‘ and all that. But no, one photon of light is wonderful, but it could not do what an I would have to do. An I perceives, thinks, and acts, with a help of a memory of sorts.

Thus, the I must be an atom of some sort, which of course, is a composite of particles. An atom would have three quarks, probably an I sort of particle, and probably much more. All of this is in the nucleus of an atom that is our I? You don’t stop looking for stuff or examining stuff just because existing instruments cannot measure things that are too small or are going to fast. Like a hydrogen ion. Just because you cannot see something, even with the most powerful microscope, one must not jump to the conclusion that it couldn’t possibly be important! Do you have any idea how small a single hydrogen ion is? If an atomic nucleus is a ping pong ball, if it has an electron, that electron is located three blocks away. And just because something is tiny does not mean that it could not possibly contain a lot of stuff. Do you have any idea of how much stuff can be packed into the nucleus of an atom? A nucleus, the size of a ping pong ball would weigh 30 billion tons! That is how much stuff is compressed into this extremely small space. So, the I is almost like a Black Hole! A hydrogen ion suddenly gains a lot of respectability!

So which atom would this be? And why are we not aware of atoms circling about us expressing their consciousness continually. We don’t seem to have any evidence of atoms possessing an I. This is because probably that atoms usually possess electrons moving rapidly about them, cutting the nucleus off from the world about it. If the electrons could be removed, then we might be surprised at what might happen!

Which atom could have its electrons removed the easiest? Well, obviously a hydrogen ion. There is only one electron. We know from physics that 70 percent of the atoms in the cosmos are hydrogen ions, 29 plus percent are helium atoms. Our earth is an anomaly in that it possesses other atoms. Even on earth 70 percent of the atoms are hydrogen atoms. Well, the discovery that the I is a hydrogen ion means that this atom possesses consciousness. The cosmos seems to be rife with ions whose consciousness is ‘revealed’, they can impact and converse with the universe around them! Every star possesses hydrogen and helium ions which are continually talking with each other and doing stuff together, which from what little we know about things, seems to be mostly just blowing up all the time.

So our I, is a hydrogen ion? And this would seem to mean that every atom in the universe possesses consciousness! And at the present time, as a result of all of our researches, we are 99.99 percent certain now that every atom in the universe possesses consciousness! We are 99.99 percent certain that somewhere in the brain, there is one hydrogen ion in charge. We have studied cells, there is a hydrogen ion in the centrosome of every cell in your body that is in charge of the activities in the cell, just as there has been in every cell, in every bit of life, since it was created (more on that below) and then nurtured through the millennia of evolution by crowds, clouds of hydrogen ions. We have gone all through this in our minibook on The Emergence of Life (still more on that, below).

So we shall assume that all of this is true here, since we have gone through all of this many times before elsewhere. So where in the brain is this hydrogen ion? We shall get to that. But first, do you realize what it means if a hydrogen ion is really your I, that is, ‘looking out’?

I mean, an important thing to realize is, well, obviously a hydrogen ion is a cosmic entity. As Plato realized a heck of a long time ago, such a cosmic part of us brings with it the cosmic gifts of will, love, truth, beauty, and justice. With just the will, each nucleus is able to perceive, think and act, probably with a tiny memory attached. It is probable that clouds of hydrogen ions utilized a cosmic language to work together and assemble life, and we think our modern engineers are so great! I maintain these great engineers of ours can learn a thing or two from these cosmic warriors! (for just one example, of what these cosmic architects and engineers can do, see the section on ‘The Neuron’ below.)

So right at the beginning of this biological exercise, we know that an I exists in any and every brain. And we know that each comes from the cosmos with certain attributes and powers residing in it. This is a first step in converting Freud’s concept into biology, I mean, he did not think there is a thing called an I, and lot of the complication in his theories can be made simple, if just this plain reality is faced. So let’s just take the ideas he did come up with and just show how brain activity makes his ideas clear and easy to understand. Also, the testimony of his patients will help illuminate brain activity that instruments cannot examine.

.

So the first step was to clear up all this nonsense about there not being such as thing as an I, and we have done that. Now the second step is to discern where in the brain such a small Napoleon might be. Where, O Where, could my little I be?

Well, we were certain from the beginning that the I would have to be located in the brain somewhere near the brain stem, because Is have been in charge of life since it was conceived. Yes, it has been there from the very, very beginning in organisms of one cell! As a result of this, as we have said, every cell in our body possesses one also. So an I has been a part of every brain that has preceded the human brain, and the brain stem is embedded in all that fish and reptilian stuff at the top of the spinal column.. Together we figured that the limpus portion of the brain would be the most likely place such an I might be hanging out. And within that area an ideal place for it to be, well would be a place like the third ventricle, because it is surrounded by curving sources of inputs of perceptions from above and and curving sources of memories from below, and it resides next to parts of the brain that convey fears and emotions. as well. We could see a small bump on the edge of this space, that might be it. And it was! It was the pineal gland! or body. Well, we were disappointed because that is the body that Descartes hypothesized where the I might be, way back hundreds of years ago, and his ideas concerning this supposedly have been totally discounted at this point.

Yet, as he said, the pineal gland is the only part of the brain above the brainstem that is not duplicated. There is only one of these in each brain, so it is a candidate for a place where Thee I might reside. I mean, there are not two Is!

Well, after intensive study of brain maps and photographs, we have reluctantly accepted the fact that Descartes was right. One problem with this body is that the pineal gland has been found to be the place where sleep and awakenedness occurs, which for some scientists such a small location being charged with this responsibility just seems to be enough for this little space to handle, which should eliminate it from consideration as the location, the home, of the I, Or Not! After all, perhaps being asleep and awake are those basic things that you would expect an I to be in charge of.

In fact, when we thought a bit harder, we were able to solve the conundrum. And in so doing we will have established another reason that this must be the location where the I is. In so doing we have again found another piece of evidence that every atom does in fact possess consciousness. It raises the probability of this being so from 99.99 percent probability to 99.999 percent. Every time we make a new discovery, there is a chance it will raise the probabilities of a whole host of hypotheses being true.

So the pineal gland is the place that controls sleep and awakenedness. And suddenly, we remember, as we have said that the consciousness that a nucleus of an atom possesses is shielded from the external world or is ‘revealed’ according to whether electrons are moving around it or not, completely shielding the nucleus from the external world, partially shielding it, or are completely removed from the nucleus, which would allow the nucleus to fully relate to the world around it. When this happens, the will of the nucleus is fully able to impact the world around it.

So when the hydrogen ion in charge of the brain is fully ‘revealed’, a person is awake; when the ion is shielded somehow, I mean, is there an electron nearby than can be grabbed to control the extent that the nucleus is ‘revealed’ or not ‘revealed’? Perhaps when a person is just below consciousness in REM sleep, REM sleep is consciousness that is characterized by rapid eye movement, perhaps the nucleus is shielded enough for the brain to lose consciousness, but be active to the extent that it can work with memories from the emotional working memory (We will get to parts of the memory eventually). In all of these ‘below-conscious’ states, the body is paralyzed, but the brain is still operating. As the nucleus is shielded more and more completely by an electron or some other device in this pineal setting, the I drops more and more below consciousness, perhaps in instances just a cosmic inch from death itself!

At the lowest levels of operation below consciousness, I would conjecture that the hydrogen ion is close to how it would operate if an electron shut off almost all of its ability to operate in the world, we would still be breathing.

As we have said, actually at that point,we would be close to death. What we learn here is that death is not a frightening thing. We shall awaken later into consciousness, either as a hydrogen ion that is in control of a human body, or as a hydrogen ion that is operating as an atomic nucleus with an electron spinning around it. The most important thing about dreams is that we subconsciously understand a cosmic truth, We ( We = I, plural) are eternal!

Well, as far as we ( We?) are concerned, what we have learned in this section is most highly important, more than what a puny psychological discipline working without biology could ever hope to discover. Indeed, we have found that the brain does have an I, and it is located in the third ventricle of the limbus part of the brain, in the tiny, puny pineal gland. Just open one and see if it is not connected by countless neurons, all these neurons connecting it ultimately with every area of the brain and the body. We discovered recently that the vagus nerve begins there, thus connecting the I to the reproductive organs which explains how when a cell is stressed in the present, how this might induce DNA in the testes and ovaries to be changed, leading to evolution of species. When we discovered that the latter was true, it was another instance where one discovery led to the increased probability of other assertions being true.

Perception, Thought, and Action

We have mentioned the cell and its organization. When we review that right here, right now, the result is stunning!

When one examines the working of a human brain, he or she will realize that its basic operation is to collect perceptions, transmit these perceptions to the I, where the I then thinks, perhaps with the aid of memory. The I may then decide to take action, and finally, it may take that action. It is stunning,but it is true! that this same process of perception, thought, and action is found in every human cell, an organization which they have inherited from one-celled progenitors. Thus, the basic organization of the human brain can be traced as far back as the origin of organisms

themselves.

In a cell, there is the centrosome which is the ‘brains’ of a cell. First, a cell experiences ‘perception’ of a type. Every particle that enters the cell comes through special openings in the cell wall, and each is conveyed automatically upon filaments to the centrosome. Here, where a hydrogen ion presumably is in command, each particle is identified, that is, the ion perceives, then thinks, and supplemented by a small memory of its own, makes a decision as to what a particle or molecule is, and then it decides where each particle is to be sent, either to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell, which serves as a great memory for the cell as a whole, with a sort of 3-dimensional Xerox capability. Not only does the DNA remember, recognize what a particle is and knows from its method of delivery what is to be done with the particle, but it has the capability to take that particle and use it to make a molecule designated by the centrosome, utilizing ribosomes in the process. Or the particle is sent to organelles outside the nucleus of the cell where it is utilized to make other molecules needed for the functioning of the cell.

Thus each cell has an I in charge, experiences perception, thought processing, then the I takes action and sends each particle to a certain destination for processing.

We might take a moment and address a potentiality here for attacking pathology in the cell. Since the centrosome processes every particle entering the cell and decides its fate, that is, it decides the ultimate destination each particle entering the cell, to be processed or eliminated, there is an obvious opportunity here to fight cancer and other diseases, nip them in the bud; the centrosome can decide to get rid of a precancerous particle immediately, or if this is impossible, it can simply kill the cell before cancer can start. The thing to remember now is that there is consciousness all around now to help us. We never realized this before. When it comes to fighting bad things in the world now, we are no longer alone!

Sorry…where were we?

As we say, the human brain has the same sort of organization on a much larger scale as every cell in the human body possesses, with the basic processes of perception, thought, and action, probably equipped with a small memory to aid it. The brain is much more complex than a cell, to be sure, involving a hundred billion cells, as many neurons as there are stars in a galaxy, and as many as there are galaxies in the universe. We have a cosmos in our head! There is an I in the brain, as we have seen, located somewhere near the brainstem, which is in control. It can perceive, think and act and seems to have a small memory of its own at hand to help make decisions. Perceptions are delivered to the I from remote parts of the brain, from skin, joints, muscles, and organs of special sense. The I then is able to think and make decisions working with its small memory, and then it can utilize a larger memory located at various location throughout the brain when necessary, and then take action. When it comes to action, the I has the power of originating movements and also of controlling and coordinating the action of muscles which are primarily innervated by nerve cells in the spinal cord and lower centers of the brain itself. Further, before taking action, it has the power of intellect, it is able to reason. Depending upon whether an individual is right or left hemispheric dominant in the brain, he or she has the ability to collect memories and utilize them by means of analogy and synthesis (right side of the brain) or by means of spot memory and analysis by the left side of the brain. Using these intellectual abilities, a human being working with a community of people with both left and right hemispheric abilities is able to bring great force to his or her actions and create tools if they are required.

An interesting fact is that many one-celled organisms also possess a second I in their cell wall, which is in charge of extra-cellular activity, including operating a flagella, or motion inducing ‘whip, if the cell has one. The I that is charge of the brain may have originally been one of these extra-cellular specialized entities, raised to the power of a trillion!

It is when higher organisms were able to utilize the powerful tools of perception, thought, and action, with the aid of memory, that they were able to become bigger and dominant animal life. But it took a major innovation in neuron technology before they could do this, a technology involving higher physics, that is, entanglement of ion waves. Let us see if our engineers can work their way towards accomplishments that little ions attained millions of years ago. It is embarrassing! We shall examine ‘freeway’ type of neurons that utilize this sophisticated technology in a moment.

Speculative Matters Concerning the I

While we are on the topic of the I, let us take a stop by Plato’s Symposium. Let us see what happens when you place the new biological philosophy and the new biological psychology next to each other. Watch out! – there may be an explosion! We rapidly move towards possible sources of unlimited cosmic energy! Let us see how far we can go towards that goal in this section!

Utilizing our new science and our new method, we have been and are going to be able to hypothesize things to which we can assign a calculated, estimated probability of being true. In this section, we receive information from so many directions that we can hypothesize that several things are true. Yet until instruments are better, and/or circumstantial evidence piles up even higher, we shall just assert that following just appear to be true. Much of the thinking in this section is related to the hypothesis that there are two spheres: that of the cosmic; and that of the plant/animal. Characteristics of the latter come from observations we are able to make concerning that sphere, just looking around us. Characteristics of the cosmic sphere are less accessible to us, although many philosophers, most importantly, Plato, have directed great attention to the powers, the attributes, and the construct of the I, in the context of the cosmic sphere. So what can we learn?

First, when it comes to the I:

It is just a hydrogen ion, a hydrogen nucleus stripped of its electron. Yet it is from a sphere that we are not fully acquainted with, the cosmic sphere. The plant/animal sphere has characteristics related to plant and animal life, that is, the life which clouds, crowds of hydrogen ions have built from scratch, and are continuing to exert influence upon in its evolution. The plant/animal sphere possesses its own laws and priorities. It is designed primarily to make certain that life is perpetuated. The hydrogen ion, on the other hand, is from a cosmic sphere that has its own characteristics, its own priorities.

Which attributes does the I possess that are cosmic in nature? The most noble, salient characteristic of the hydrogen ion, of the I, is that of virtue. The I is imbued with Goodness, This Goodness is expressed by means of two powers, two attributes, and one construct, all of which are initially expressed in manners in accordance with moral excellence, although the final disposition of original intention of the I may be altered, perhaps denigrated, eroded by a brain that is fully immersed in the plant/animal sphere and its concerns, which compete constantly with the innate desires of the I.

Every nucleus of an atom has within it the power of will. If electrons are removed, an atom may become an ion. Initially, a ion always has the power to impact the world in a virtuous manner.

Every I possesses the power of love; this is a power of connectiveness and association with other Is.

Every action imparted by the I is taken in accordance with the attribute of truth that exists in the cosmic sphere.. Every action taken by the I is good, never evil, initially. As one looks at the ocean of stars above us, good and evil basically boils down to light and darkness..

Every action imparted by the I is taken in conformance with the attribute of beauty, which visually is in conformance with static mathematical laws, which dynamically is as in music it is in conformance with the balance of materials in motion.

There is one thing which we shall assign the name of construct, which is related to the interaction of Is. That construct is Justice, which takes all the aspects of virtue above and imparts them to every interaction and disposition of Is among themselves.

This leads us to the whole consideration of the two Spheres, themselves, the cosmic, and the plant/animal. As we say, the latter we know a lot about, the former, not so much..

Only 3 percent of the cosmos is in light, the rest is in darkness. Yet this does not imply that there is nothing there. The entire thrust of the examinations and speculations we are undertaking in these minibooks is aimed at ascertaining a possible source of energy that might be tapped into located in this unknown darkness.. The I offers an enticing, though challenging, small window into this dark expanse.

Why are we here on earth, or at least, what should be our primary

aim while we are here? Less than one percent of all the atoms in the cosmos are not hydrogen or helium atoms, so our earth is an anomaly. Virtually all of the cosmos is composed of ions which can talk and interact with each other constantly. Only on earth can atoms remain locked in a rock for billions of years. Life may have been created by Is that were simply bored, well, there is joy and happiness received for all things from creative acts. In the heavens ions may experience such joy constantly, on earth not so much. Then there is the exhilaration of a very tiny ion, being in charge of a very large organism of life.

We can only surmise why we are here. We might just venture a guess and state that our primary aim should be to find another I that we can become one with and spend the rest of eternity with. It seems that each I is more than just a collection of particles, it is a consciousness, each with a different personality. At the beginning, at the time of the Big Bang,.the cosmos was one, embodying all consciousness and all personalities.

Well, all of this is fun, yet intensely serious if humanity is to have a future. As we have said, our only hope is that we might find a glimpse of things in all of this unknown that can help us.

The Neuron

Okay back to things we can actually examine right now.

Now come on now. You would think that neuro-scientists would have figured out how a neuron works by now! In one of the books we just received in the mail of recent publication, it says that the reason a neuron has a myelin coating is to insure that the electrical flow within is contained. Well, this may be the case for some neurons, the ones that set muscles in motion. However, there would be no human beings if that were the only way neurons worked.

Yes, when we are talking about electrical flow being most important, then we are talking about tiny, tiny little organisms, whose activity is controlled by instinctual behavior, which means that their DNA has the means to express all the activity the organism will require in life.. As a consequence, most of what they do is related to stimulus and response. They see something, and Pow! a response automatically happens that is programmed int their tiny brains. Well, even then, most of their activity is not just on and off pulses of current in neurons along single neurons. There are ganglions, which are like small brains, which are connected to a suite of neurons, all set to work together to accomplish something. Yes, so far it is all off and on, and the brain uses tricks like ganglions to speed things up. After all, if things are just off and on, there can be nothing new happening, nothing really complicated can happen, like transmitting images of one thousand leaves on a tree. No, on and off can only do so much. Basically on and off allows one to flee predators, fight predators, and reproduce, that’s about all, folks!

Now we must make one thing very clear, right here. An organism can never be 100 percent strictly on and off in its circuitry. Every moment that an organism is awake, there is an I, ‘looking out’. As we saw above this has been the case since the first cells were formed. This is of upmost importance to keep in mind.. Even if all actions are intuitive, something has to move the organism around so there can be stimuli to respond to. Then later, somewhere along the evolutionary track, the I begins to initiate other actions itself! This takes more than simple off and on stuff. Complex perception must occur, complex thought then occurs with the help of an elaborate memory. None of this can be simple off and on. As far as we can tell, no one has examined any of this complicated transmission and processing of information, to speak of.

One thing is for certain: all of this perception, thought, action sequence is not something new, from outer space or somewhere. As we have seen, .it already existed in the first cells. As we have said, we have found that every cell in our body, every single-celled organism actually goes through the process of perception, thought, and deciding what action to take with the help of memory. A cell can accomplish this with the aid of structural devices such as filaments that bring new particles entering the cell to the centrosome, where an I seems to be located, for processing. These filaments are like the earliest neurons. They have to be able to carry something of importance, a particle, a molecule, later they must carry complex information, and this information .must be generated and then moved quickly. These latter things are not done with simple on and off.

In higher animals, technological breakthrough is required for the neural generation and conveyance of information. First, complicated perceptual information must be created in input areas for the senses of vision, taste, and hearing, which generate voluminous amounts of data. And then all this data must be moved quickly and efficiently to the I. This is what is forgotten in all this, the I must receive everything, and process everything except for ‘lower’ functions that still operate in the ‘lower’ parts of the brain related to earlier stages of evolution. This continual processing of so many things by one tiny I is what is forgotten by every neural scientist, and is testified to as being true by every patient on Freud’s couch. This testimony is valid empirical evidence, when instruments are too weak to ascertain the true functioning of things.

So we must rethink things: as we have said, the I first entertains perceptions, then it thinks, with the aid of memory, and then it acts. And yes, that action part, it is mostly on and off stuff, which can be imparted by electrical charge. However, things such as perception and thought, and next when we consider a thing like memory, well, now we are talking about things that are different! If we utilize the psychoanalytical testimony of patients to discover truth, any of them would tell you this: that in his or her brain, in a fraction of a second, neurons in their brains convey unspeakably large amounts of information from the input areas for seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and tasting to the I. These patients’ neurons are also considering unspeakably large amounts of ideas in thought areas, and they are recalling incredibly large amounts of information in memory areas. There is no way these lengths of neurons are simply transmitting on and off signals by means of electrical charges. How are on and off delivering messages? Morse Code? Some one would have to encode stuff, then decode stuff, One tree has a hundred leaves! delivered in a fraction of a second! Obviously a better way is being used to move this information. The cosmic engineers that put our human bodies together made breakthroughs that are putting our so-called ‘modern’ engineers and physicists to shame.

Now this is what we think these cosmic scientists were doing. Well, right off we can see that if every computer chip possessed an I, this would remove the need for a lot of components on the chip. As for moving large amounts of information in the brain in a fraction of a second, how about this hypothesis? – with about a 60 percent chance of being true..

This is how we see it. Some neurons are what we might call ‘Freeway Neurons’. They are equipped to move large amounts of information long distances in a fraction of a second! Each of these neurons is comprised of two parts: if you look at a cross-section of an axon, there is a circular center area; and then a smaller vacant area that surrounds the center area completely just inside of the cell wall all the way around the axon. There are ions, calcium and sodium, in the center area, they do not move far linearly, but they do move constantly within confined spaces, which seems to tell us that this movement of ions is essential to the activity of the neuron somehow.

Okay, when an ion moves, it generates an associated wave, which is ten thousand times larger than the particle or atom itself. The waves generated by these ions are able to fill the vacant space between the central area and the cell wall. These waves overlap each other in that space and they become ‘entangled’. Well, physicists talk about particles becoming ‘entangled’. However, we think they are confusing particles with their associated waves. What does ‘entangled’ mean? First, the uncertainty principle. We think this refers to the fact that a particle may be found any place within its associated wave, which is much, much, much larger than the particle is, our instruments somehow confuse particles with waves and can only measure certain things at certain times.

When it comes to ‘entanglement’, we think what happens is that waves associated with different ions overlap and information is transferred from one to the next. That is, it is not particles that become ‘entangled’, their waves overlap, and then it is not ions that move information from one side of the brain to the other in a split second, it is the information itself that moves!!! All information of the perceptual, thought, or memory type is able to be transferred in mass instantly in one long movement through a succession of waves. In this way, information is transferred from wave to the next in a long succession of neurons from one side of the brain to the I.

You can see how much all disciplines rely upon the discipline of physics for fundamental science, and when physics makes little progress for years, since around 1926, all of science suffers. And now, the other disciplines must find a way to do this science themselves. With the Science of Everything and our new scientific method, now many disciplines can work together to generate the science they need, for all to progress.

The Unconscious is Memory

So when Freud uses the word ‘unconscious’, obviously what he is referring to is memory. And memory has a biological, physiological location within the brain. However, exactly where memory is located is not straight-forward. We have not seen anywhere a hypothesis that successfully describes the memory processes. For one thing, a machine can be used to trace areas of the brain which are involved in the creation of one episode of memory. When this is done, areas of the brain light up where different sources for that one episode of memory originate. When this machine is used, many areas in the brain light up. These little lights thus are indicating where the little bits of source memory for the final totally combined memory are stored. They are not stored in some official memory storage area. Instead each little bit of source memory is located in one of the perception input areas, one light each for sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. This would suggest that memory is accomplished at the time of perception in each input area, and somehow memories related to one episode of perception can be brought together and conveyed as it was originally created from those input areas to the I.

Well, our first take on this memory thing was this: it is exactly the same as the perception thing, but instead of live perceptions being received by the I from the input areas, instead memories are gathered from the same areas. and sent to the I via the same routes. Everything is the same, except this time, it is Memorex! That is, there is one difference. As Memories are moved from input areas to the I, there is one extra stop at the hippocampus, and this organ has the ability to screen out, block the path of a memory to the I, if warranted.

Okay, but as we thought things through, we realized that it must be the hippocampus which is reaching out and gathering memories, grouping source bits together and bringing them in tandem to the I. How in the heck is the hippocampus able to do this, gather several perceptions from different inputs areas that were received initially at the same time? Well, this obviously is not happening. Instead, it seems that memory is related to emotion, to feelings experienced during the time of the original perception. In this way, perception that actually occurred at different times in different places may be brought together by the hippocampus because of similarity in the initial feelings attached to separate perceptions and not related to the same episode in time. When one remembers a song, there is a feeling associated with that memory.

Then we remembered that when an electro-magnetic wave is generated and information is sent along along succession of neurons, there is the ‘electro’ part of the wave that allows information to move in real time, yet simultaneously there is a magnetic vector that is perpendicular to the information flow that can be generating memory right at the beginning, right at the same time in the same original input areas. These magnetic vectors can be related to emotion and passion associated with a given perception. These emotions and passions then can be key to the retrieval of the aggregated memories.

There seem to be two different kinds of memories: the ones that Freud was concerned with, what we call the emotional work memories that seem to be stored in the input areas that are filled with emotion that are used in the act of living; and a thought memory in the frontal lobes of both hemispheres that is used by the I for the creation of ideas. If a person is left hemispheric dominant, he or she has a ‘spot’ memory, and is able to store voluminous amounts of data which is unrelated, think of James Joyce and his book, Ulysses, which is a pile of data in search of meaning. Compare that with the philosophy of Georg Hegel, who was right hemispheric dominant. We saw where he had scored a 170 I.Q. on the Wechsler-Bellevue Block test, which measures the abilities of that hemisphere. In his philosophy, all ideas are conceptually connected into one large synthesis, which he called, the Absolute.

So, there are two types of memory: one that is a thought memory, which is used simply to move ideas around, well, it does more than that: if a person with one hemispheric dominance works with a person with the other, then ideas are created, these are powerful tools that can be added to the emotional work memory, which holds memories that are related to the actual exigencies of living. Both working together, can move the world! In the end, as Freud surmised, it seems that the work memories that are emotionally accessed, are the ones that are related to mental illness.

So it seems that it is the hippocampus that is accomplishing great acts manipulating emotional work memory. The thought memory located in the frontal lobes can be a great aid for a great mind that desires to move the world! However, memories must be able to be recalled when required and emotional work memories must be kept from disrupting creative thought. Emotional work memories must be kept in the background when the I is working with thought memory, and certain emotional work memories that have been contaminated by trauma in infancy, or thereafter, need to be screened out permanently, and these things the hippocampus seems to be able to do, probably under the direction of the I, when the hippocampus is acting normally.

Memory and Pathology

So it seems that it is the hippocampus that is the assembler of emotional work charged memories on command. As we say, it is also able to screen memories out when the I decides that such screening is necessary. Such screening occurs, when such banned memories are summoned subsequently by the I.

Mental illness occurs in this process for two reasons:

First, genetically, a brain may be disposed to ‘leakage’ of these emotional work memories, and every day work may be disrupted by sounds of voices or sights of visions, leaking into one’s consciousness. This is a genetic sort of mental illness, which can be manifested at birth, or it can appear suddenly and become worse over time later, as a sort of time-lapsed expression of genes. This sort of illness in the past has seemed to be more conducive to amelioration by means of medication than by therapy.

Some people just have a genetic disposition for mental illness. My mother’s mother’s family whose origin in America were the Appalachians, which were populated by some of the earliest settlers from England, well, her family was related to King George III and his mental illness. However did they know that? Well, they obviously were not royalty. Kings usually had the freedom to have sex with any that moved and had a hole in it, so it had to have happened though a back door somewhere. However, my family seemed to know a lot about all of that, and they seemed to be quite proud of it. There existed another heritage of that same part of the family; there was a succession of individuals, who were crazier than loons, which eventually included my mother, her sister, and eventually my sister. When it came to my family, those affected seemed if they really concentrated and were determined to live in the world and control the illness, they could. My mother never sought therapy and displayed evidences of mental illness every single moment of every day. Her sister undertook years of therapy with little success, well, as far as a cure was concerned. Still she seemed to be able to live a fairly productive life. She married a very talented person and was able to help him in his social interactions. My sister was able to stay in the world and function at a low level of success as long as my parents were alive. When they passed away, she had to find residence in a rest home, where she could live without causing any disruption.

The thing to realize here is: if the genesis of mental illness is genetic, then hippocampus seems to be faulty and is allowing ‘leakage’ of emotional work memories into the consciousness, which can be quite disconcerting if one does not understand what is happening. and many therapists just abruptly conclude that if you are psychotic, you need certain medicines, or just plain need to be ‘locked up’. In any case, therapists feel that they must monitor such people’s actions very severely to make certain they are not disrupting the normal life of society. All of this, when the fact is these people are just filled with voices that can be ignored, up to a point. In the end, just knowing what is happening physiologically, can be very beneficial and can move a person a long way towards being able to live more of an acceptable, ‘normal’ life.

Second, there is mental illness that is not genetic, although there may be genetic susceptibilities that are inherited, in these cases, therapy can help. This is the type of mental illness that Freud was concerned with. In addition, there is malfunctioning of the hippocampus that is deliberately effected by the I, wherein both work together to exclude certain emotional work memories from consciousness. As we have said, these are memories which the I may decide are necessary to exclude in order for a person to live a satisfactory life. As we have said, these memories initially may have involved trauma in infanthood, when the brain was not protected as it is later. Or trauma may be experienced later at any time in football, in war, and the I and the hippocampus which is nearby then work together to screen these Memories out of consciousness such that every day work may be accomplished without disturbance. Such memories are said to have been ‘repressed’ as long as long as they are purposely screened out of consciousness. And if the physician attempts to bring them into the patient’s consciousness he provokes a resistance. These repressed memories may also may have been inherited, which adds to the confusion. In the end, the screening process may not work, and in many cases contaminated memories may succeed in making their influence felt by circuitous paths. The indirect or substitutive gratification of repressed impulses is what constitutes neurotic symptoms.

Potential Remedies

Well, as we have said, this minibook is a first step towards a new psychologically oriented science of the brain. Just like philosophy, we are attempting to assist the neural sciences by acquiring information about the brain, from the inside out. Just as physics is hampered by the inadequacies of their instruments, by their inability to measure things that are too small or too fast, the neural sciences are hampered by obvious moral reasons. Scientists can only go so far in the examination of a live human brain, then they must stop.

One thing to understand now is: that all life can be seen as part of a total continuum. Humans have minds. Well, so do all other forms of life, to a degree. Mind is all on a continuum. When one looks at an organism, any organism, there is an I there. So when one examines a rat’s neuron, one is quite possibly looking at a precursor to a human neuron. We have hypotheses here in this minibook that can be tested, adjusted, extended, when the examination of the brains of other species is undertaken.

Another thing to be taken away from this minibook is: that mental illness is a physiological problem. A mentally ill person is not EVIL, or Possessed!!!! In many cases the hippocampus is just ‘leaking’, there are voices a person hears that just are background noise that can be ignored. Medicine can be directed toward a specific part of the brain for specific reasons now, and not just be a medicine for the ‘insane’. There is no reason for a stigma to be attached to mental illness. So many instances exist where mental illness has produced outstanding advances both in the sciences and the arts, because mental illness renders a different perspective upon things, which can result in new knowledge.

Because of things we have encountered in this minibook, scientists now have a more complete picture of activity in the brain to consider when developing remedies for mental illness. The use of our new Science of Everything and our new scientific method, which have been put to use right here in this book can now be extended in every direction as far as the social sciences extend their influence, everywhere.

BONUS IDEAS!

The I and Energy

We have been fortunate to have bumped into a plenitude of interesting things in this minibook, yet there is more! Breakthroughs tend to lead to more breakthroughs, and we simply cannot wait to put these ideas in subsequent minibooks. Here are three more ideas!

The number one problem in the world populated by humanity is energy!We only have thirty more years of oil left, and coal is near the end also and it has a detrimental impact on the environment. Still the fact is, even if we still had oil and coal, two-thirds of humanity has not reached a significant level of economic development. It would be nice if we had a limitless supply of energy to help power these countries into modernity.

Our thinking is in the early stages here, but ideas are promising. What if the I could give us access to Dark Energy. This is beginning to sound like science fiction, perhaps too far out for even that field of writing to approach, but hear us out.

First, as we keep saying: every atom possesses consciousness, we are almost 100 percent certain of this. Hydrogen ions are the easiest atoms to separate from their electrons and obtain full impact of their consciousness upon the world around them. Yes, hydrogen ions can produce electricity and thereby contribute to the energy needs of the world. Yet is there not more that is obvious here?

If a hydrogen ion possesses consciousness, then one of these in a computer chip could do the work of a lot of diodes! – if we can learn their language and be able to give instructions to them. So the consciousness part of hydrogen ions is important in itself.

Yet, there is more.

An atom has electrons whirling like a river around it; how are these electrons able to whirl forever without any apparent energy source? Well, one guess would be: that it is able to obtain its fuel from the 97 percent of the cosmos around it that is in darkness. If this is the case, then the nucleus must also be able to do the same. This means that the hydrogen ion that is in your brain is not powered by the food you eat as the rest of your body is.

It must possess an independent energy source from the darkness! Then, a big ‘Then’, I know. But then, a cloud or crowd of these hydrogen ions would not only bring consciousness to the table with all that immense potentiality, but they would also have access to an infinite source of energy!

Consciousness and Evolution

And so, a second idea!

So Darwin came up with all his fascinating ideas. Yet one piece of the puzzle of how life evolved, has always been really puzzling.

Supposedly, once life got started somehow, changes were made in life forms by one means only, namely, mutations in DNA. Darwin maintained that these mutations occurred randomly and as a consequence, new forms of life could spring forth at any time. Such an assertion certainly took one’s breath away, especially if he or she had any acquaintance with mathematics. For it certainly has been proved a long time ago, that a random sequence of number can never converge. Simply put, randomness can never produce anything!

On the other hand, if consciousness was involved in the creation and evolution of life, and it does seem apparent that somehow it was, exactly how did this ever happen? As Jean Baptiste Lamarck proposed: a giraffe needed to extend its neck higher to eat leaves from a tall tree, so it just evolved a longer neck. Truly such ideas must be fantasy.

Okay, first we know now that hydrogen ions, which do possess consciousness, actually created life. We can see how life was first constructed: at the first there was ocean water and carbon dioxide in the air of the early earth. Water plus carbon dioxide produces sugar. And every organic molecule is actually just a sugar molecule with a little this or that added to it. It is in the realm of possibility that intelligent little things could have used such molecules to build something, and then use other sugar molecules to help them remember what they had done, and maybe why. The latter became RNA, then DNA, Sugar molecules were a source of energy used to make these structures made of sugar move.

Okay so all of this might have happened. Here is the real problem with consciousness creating changes in life forms. Say, you are a human, and other humans keep beating your families up and eating them. You are tired of this and desire a larger brain to combat your enemies. Well, the cells in your brain are taxed mightily in this war with Neanderthals, and some of the cells in your brain may be stressed mightily in the process. This stress might induce changes in your brain cells.

Well, we know that all the cells in your body have the same DNA. Each cell then uses different parts of this same DNA to enable different cells to do different things. Well, a cell in your brain knows which parts of the DNA in its nucleus it is using. It is stressed. It just may mark those parts of the DNA it is using somehow, as if to say, here, these parts of this cell’s DNA need to be duplicated many times such that the power of this brain cell, or the power of this general area in the brain is increased many times.

Well, okay, this might be possible. However, in which manner could these requests for a change be conveyed to the next generation? What is the connection between any cell in one’s body and the germ cells in the testes or the ovaries tubes wherein sperm or egg DNA must be changed for the next generation to be different? This was a brick wall we were up against for a while. Then,

Well, we know that neurons can convey more than on and off charges.

They can convey information in their waves. So the marks in the DNA of the requesting cell would have to be moved to the I for transfer to another location where the requested changes might be made. Somehow the I must be connected to the reproductive organs of the human, well, or of any organism that we may be talking about. Such a connection would have to be made by a neuron.

Well, it just so happens that there is such a neuron. It is the vagus nerve. It has been known for some time that this neuron is connected on one end to the pineal gland. And now we know that this is precisely where the I is located! The other end of the vagus nerve, well, this sucker is the longest neuron in the body, I could go on and on about where this nerve travels, which organs it interacts with, and how it avoids being part of the spinal column, such that if one’s back is broken, the vagus nerve still can operate.

Instead, let us just acknowledge that it does reach the reproductive organs, and it is likely that it can impact the DNA in the reproductive areas. We have to understand that our scientists know very little about any of this. For example, in each ejaculation from the testes, there are 300 million sperm, and each sperm possesses different DNA! – otherwise all progeny would be identical. How and where are 300 million sperm created in a short amount of time, and how is it possible that they are created each with different DNA!?

Our scientists know so very little.

` Let us just say this. It is apparent that the mechanisms by which consciousness can impact evolution exists. It may seem outrageous that the connection between the desire for changes in cells in an organism, the location of the I, and the location of the DNA that must be changed for evolution to take place are so far apart and just happen to be connected by one nerve that seems almost like it was created for the purpose of facilitating such evolution. We have to remember, that we have to go back to the very beginning, as Rogers and Hammerstein would sing again, and the very same processes were occurring then, that are occurring now. Three billion years ago one-celled organisms had to have mechanisms similar to what exist today except that all was occurring right next to each other. If a change in an organism was needed, this need could have been transmitted to the centrosome which was nearby, which would immediately make the necessary changes in the DNA next door which could transmit these changes to the future. These connections were obviously of such import to the preservation of life, that these connections have been maintained even as the structure of organisms has changed immensely.

The I and Community

This might seem like an unimportant side light, standing in the shadows next to more important ideas above. Yet, say, we have a world with enough energy and all countries are able to develop to a level where humanity is happy for a change, finally! Well, the fact is, we would have nothing if that humanity could not live, work, cooperate on the highest levels together!

The ideas in this section are not as theoretical as they might have been, now that Russia is kicking up its heels, and is invading Ukraine. Society in developed countries have always been split into factions. Countries are constantly at war anyway, there seems to be always about 160 wars going on, somewhere, even in the face of the United Nations, which is supposed to be the cure for such things.

Right here, right now, there must be an Awakening. Humanity must understand that they are cosmic in nature. This is a plant/animal world, to be sure. However, the most important things about us are cosmic. We all, each, possess an I! In that respect we are all equal. We are all one! Well, each of our Is possesses a different personality, as many different personalities as there are atoms! just as every snowflake is different! Still, every difference in personality is required, needed, to make a universe, for somehow, all was one at the very beginning.

We are highly certain that it was crowds, clouds of hydrogen ions that created life, working together as Egyptians did, when they built the great pyramids. We can see what amazing things bits of consciousness could do when they cooperated and worked together and did not fight, fight, fight. Those tiny, invisible flicks of light, created life! Well, the same crowds of hydrogen ions exist on earth within humanity, and of course, even greater works can be done. Well, as we say, the creation of life was spectacular, seemingly way beyond what mere humanity can produce. Yet, the fact is, amazing things have been done by things so little that they cannot be seen by the naked eye. Thus, theoretically the same level of amazement should be able to be produced by entities that are much larger. Sadly, the larger we are, the more Neanderthal we seem to become.

This must change. And we believe that man- and womankind can be inspired to change, when we understand what those little things were able to do. We are still fighting to rise above primitive man in this one respect. In the near past, we have risen above the fact that we are actually just animals, although, we are special: we are animals with tools. So far, we have risen above other animals mainly by ignoring the fact we are animals. This is the major problem with our social sciences. It is now time to face that beast within us, and realize that it is our brain, our tools, that are our hope, our only hope, for the future. Somehow we have to be persuaded by powerful ideas, by powerful tools of the mind that we are indeed not here on Earth to kill each other. But like our forefathers and mothers who were so tiny that they were invisible, it is possible, it is necessary, for us to build together! Now that we have seen the complete genealogy chart, we know what our true forefathers and mothers have accomplished. And indeed we have every right to expect more! Such working, building together is certain to yield a world full of joy and happiness. And now that we know so much more about ourselves, our Is, our brothers and sisters, who are tiny specks of relentless energy, who have accomplished so much, this must be a new basis for hope that we may be able to establish community in peace here on earth, one world-wide family, arm in arm, one force! – that may be able to continue in some blinding, blazing fifth dimension of community, to be preserved unrelentlessly, out there, somewhere, eternally, in the Light!

,

CONCLUSION

The principal field of applications for approaches for combating mental illness suggested in this minibook, are for the milder neuroses, hysteria, phobias, and obsessional states. In every instance, treatment by psychoanalysis makes heavy demands upon both the physician and the subject. The former requires special training and must devote a long period of time to exploring the mind of each individual patient. And the latter must make considerable sacrifices, both material and mental.

Well, as we have said, one of the basic purposes of this minibook was to demonstrate a new science and a new method for ascertaining truth. We have been able to do much more than we anticipated we could when we first started this book. We have addressed some interesting ideas, and we have come up with some new hypotheses for both psychoanalytical work and for how the brain functions, for how and why pathology emerges, and for possible remedies for these mental illnesses. However, as we have said, we have not worked until we were 99.99 percent certain of all of our hypotheses; we are at most 60 percent concerning certain things, which doesn’t seem good enough at this junction. Still, as we have said, the point that this minibook was made to serve, we think has been successfully delivered. We have made the same point before, in previous minibooks we have written concerning Karl Marx and the emergence of life. As we have said, we are utilizing a new science and a new scientific method, and unlike most universities, we are utilizing people, creative clusters of people, friends and family in our neighborhoods, who have abilities related to both sides of the brain. Together we are building the future!

As we have said, it is imperative that these abilities, new tools, and clusters be used now as humanity is in a precarious situation. This new threat seems to have come out of nowhere, although it obviously was there in our face, if we had only looked. There are only 30 more years of oil, there is global warming, population explosion. Two-thirds of world still is in need of development or there will be hell to pay. the Soviet Union is only the first of those being left behind, to kick up their heels! The authors of this minibook will be working together for the next forty years to help build a new world.

When man landed on the moon, he did not discover the moon, instead he discovered the earth! – a big blue ball floating in the black of space. Indeed, we are all alone, with only ourselves to guide this great ghost ship through a cosmic night.

This minibook was supposed to end here, but the conclusions reached in it, which are the result of a right hemispheric dominant person and a left hemispheric dominant person working together, must give one pause. When people with different hemispheric dominance work together, you must add their I.Q.’s together, then maybe double that number to account for the power of synergistic forces that explode forth as a result of that combination. Well, you end up with an I.Q. way over 1000. When two working together are able to create ideas like this there is no room for hubris, because they together are able to gain a glimpse of a universe that a science fiction writer would never dare to imagine. What they are able to see, must be daunting and the height of challenges for anyone regardless of how intelligent they may think they are.

As we have said, nine-seven percent of the cosmos is in darkness to us. Super I.Q.’s are at last able to capture a glimpse of this unknown realm. Right here, right now we have begun to understand the complexity, the wonder of the human brain, that is the culmination of an earth life that may be only at step one, If, and only If, that life can hold this frail blue globe together.

As we have said, and asked:

What sort of power, unknown quantities of energy, reside in that nine-seven percent of darkness?! What sort of beings, possessed a level of cognition, conceptualization powerful enough to form a cosmic corps of architects and engineers, who could have conceived and constructed such a magnificent monument as the human brain, which sits at the top of a plant/animal life, which was also the product of crowds of hydrogen ions. This magnificent brain rules a human body, which with other human bodies is able to control rule the earth.

And all is run in a brain by one nucleus in one atom!

So in the end, as we have said, we are looking for new sources of energy, yet it is appearing more and more probable that the answers we are seeking are associated with a tiny, tiny thing, possessing a magnificent power. That tiny thing brings cosmic energy with it. It brings cosmic truth with it! We need to learn to communicate with it, well, first of all learn its language. But wait! what inside of us would be doing this communicating? Something that already knows that cosmic language. Now it is apparent that the answer to it all, to everything, all along, has resided within ourselves, if we had only thought, to look!

THE END

Bibliography

Carter, Rita, The Human Brain Book, An Illustrated Guide to

its Structure, Function, and Disorders (Great Britain: Dorling Kindersley, Limited, 2019), 266pp.

Carter, Rita, Mapping the Mind (Berkeley, California: University of California Press), 224pp.

Freud, Sigmund, The Ego and the Id, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1960), 86pp.

Freud, Sigmund, The Interpretation of Dreams (New York: Basic Books, 1955), 674pp.

Holland, Eva, Nerve….Adventures in the Science of Fear (New York: The Experiment, 2020), 237pp.

Lacan, Jacques,Ěcrits (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999), 878pp.

Jones, Ernest, The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1963), 534pp.
Simmons, Peter, Young, David, Nerve Cells and Animal Behaviour, Third Edition (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010), 284pp.

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(Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2013), 278pp.

Wilson, John, Hunt, Tim, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Revised Edition (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994) 1225pp.

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